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|Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى
Xinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni
Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū
|Abbreviations: 新 (Pinyin: Xīn)|
|Origin of name||新 xīn - new
疆 jiāng - territory
|Administration type||Autonomous region|
(and largest city)
|CPC Ctte Secretary||Wang Lequan|
|Area||1,660,000 km² (1st)|
- per capita
|CNY 220.0 billion (25th)
CNY 11,200 (13th)
|HDI (2005)||0.757 (medium) (14th)|
|Major nationalities||Uyghur - 45%
Han - 41%
Kazakh - 7%
Hui - 5%
Kirghiz - 0.9%
Mongol - 0.8%
Dongxiang - 0.3%
Tajik - 0.2%
Xibe - 0.2%
http://www.xinjiang.gov.cn (Simplified Chinese)
|Source for population and GDP data:
《中国统计年鉴—2005》 China Statistical Yearbook 2005Source for nationalities data:
《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 Tabulation on nationalities of 2000 population census of China† As at December 31, 2004
Xinjiang (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ (Xinjang); Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal map spelling: Sinkiang) is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. It is a large, sparsely populated area which takes up about one sixth of the country's territory. Xinjiang borders the Tibet Autonomous Region to the south and Qinghai and Gansu provinces to the southeast, Mongolia to the east, Russia to the north, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and the Pakistan- and India-controlled parts of Kashmir to the west. It administers most of Aksai Chin, a region claimed by India as part of Jammu and Kashmir.
"Xinjiang" or "Ice Jecen" in Manchu, literally means "New Frontier", a name given during the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China. It is home to a number of Turkic ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Uyghurs. The region is often referred to as Chinese Turkestan or East Turkestan.
 Historic names
Xinjiang is divided into two prefecture-level cities, seven prefectures, and five autonomous prefectures. (Two of the seven prefectures are in turn part of Ili, an autonomous prefecture.) These are then divided into eleven districts, twenty county-level cities, sixty-two counties, and six autonomous counties. Four of the county-level cities do not belong to any prefecture, and are de facto administered by the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps.
|Ürümqi||ئۈرۈمچى شەھرى||Ürümqi Xəh̡ri||乌鲁木齐市||Wūlǔmùqí Shì|
|Karamay||قاراماي شەھرى||K̡aramay Xəh̡ri||克拉玛依市||Kèlāmǎyī Shì|
|Directly administered county-level cities|
|Shihezi||شىخەنزە شەھرى||Xihənzə Xəh̡ri||石河子市||Shíhézǐ Shì||Administered de facto by the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps|
|Tumxuk||تۇمشۇق شەھرى||Tumxuk̡ Xəh̡ri||图木舒克市||Túmùshūkè Shì|
|Aral||ئارال شەھرى||Aral Xəh̡ri||阿拉尔市||Ālā'ěr Shì|
|Wujiaqu||ئۇجاچۇ شەھرى||Wujiaqü Xəh̡ri||五家渠市||Wǔjiāqú Shì|
|Turpan Prefecture||تۇرپان ۋىلايىتى||Turpan Vilayiti||吐鲁番地区||Tǔlǔfān Dìqū|
|Kumul Prefecture||قۇمۇل ۋىلايىتى||K̡umul Vilayiti||哈密地区||Hāmì Dìqū|
|Hotan Prefecture||خوتەن ۋىلايىتى||Hotən Vilayiti||和田地区||Hétián Dìqū|
|Aksu Prefecture||ئاقسۇ ۋىلايىتى||Ak̡su Vilayiti||阿克苏地区||Ākèsū Dìqū|
|Kashgar Prefecture||قەشقەر ۋىلايىتى||K̡əxk̡ər Vilayiti||喀什地区||Kāshí Dìqū|
|Tacheng Prefecture||تارباغاتاي ۋىلايىتى||Tarbaƣatay Vilayiti||塔城地区||Tǎchéng Dìqū||subordinate to Ili Prefecture|
|Altay Prefecture||ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى||Altay Vilayiti||阿勒泰地区||Ālètài Dìqū|
|Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture||قىزىلسۇ قىرغىز ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى||K̡izilsu K̡irƣiz Aptonom Oblasti||克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州||Kèzīlèsū Kē'ěrkèzī Zìzhìzhōu|
|Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture||بايىنغولىن موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى||Bayinƣolin Mongƣol Aptonom Oblasti||巴音郭楞蒙古自治州||Bāyīnguōlèng Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu|
|Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture||سانجى خۇيزۇ ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى||Sanji Huizu Aptonom Oblasti||昌吉回族自治州||Chāngjí Huízú Zìzhìzhōu|
|Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture||بۆرتالا موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى||Bɵrtala Mongƣol Aptonom Oblasti||博尔塔拉蒙古自治州||Bó'ěrtǎlā Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu|
|Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture||ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى||Ili K̡azak̡ Aptonom Oblasti||伊犁哈萨克自治州||Yīlí Hāsàkè Zìzhìzhōu|
 Geography and geology
Xinjiang is the largest political subdivision of China - it accounts for more than one sixth of China's total territory and a quarter of its boundary length. It is divided into two basins by Mount Tianshan. Dzungarian Basin is in the north, and Tarim Basin is in the south. Xinjiang's lowest point is the Turfan Depression, 155 metres below sea level (lowest point in the PRC as well). Its highest peak, K2, is 8611 metres above sea level, on the border with Kashmir.
Most of Xinjiang is young geologically, having been formed from the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, forming the Tian Shan, Kunlun Shan, and Pamir mountain ranges. Consequently, Xinjiang is a major earthquake zone. Older geological formations occur principally in the far north where the Junggar Block is geologically part of Kazakhstan, and in the east which is part of the North China Craton.
Xinjiang has within its borders the point of land remotest from the sea (Lat. 46 degrees 16.8 minutes N, Long. 86 degrees 40.2 minutes E) in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert, 1,645 miles (2648 km) from the nearest coastline (straight-line distance).
Xinjiang's nominal GDP was approximately 187 billion RMB (about 23 billion USD) in 2003, and increased to 220 billion RMB (about 28 billion USD) in 2004, due to the China Western Development policy introduced by the State Council to boost economic development in Western China. Its per capita GDP for 2003 was 9,710 RMB (1172 USD).
Xinjiang's exports amounted to 3.047 billion USD, while import turned out to be 2.589 billion USD in 2004. Most of the overall import/export volume in Xinjiang was directed to and from Kazakhstan through Ala Pass . China's first border free trade zone (Horgos Free Trade Zone) was located at the Xinjiang-Kazakhstan border city of Horgos . Horgos is the largest land port in China's western region and it has easy access to the Central Asian market. Xinjiang will also open its second border trade market to Kazakhstan in March 2006, the Jeminay Border Trade Zone. 
Xinjiang is home to several Muslim Turkic groups including the Uyghurs and the Kazakhs. Other PRC minority ethnic groups include Hui Chinese, the Kirghiz, the Mongols, the Russians, the Xibes, the Tajik, the Uzbek, the Tatars, and the Manchus.
The percentage of ethnic Han Chinese in Xinjiang has grown from 6 percent in 1949 to an official tally of over 40 percent at present. This figure does not include military personnel or their families, or the many unregistered migrant workers. Much of this transformation can be attributed to the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (XPCC), a semi-military organization of settlers that has built farms, towns, and cities over scattered parts of Xinjiang. The demographic transformation is held by Uyghur independence advocates as a threat to Uyghurs and other non-Han ethnicities in maintaining their culture, similar to the case of Tibet.While at the same time, the minorities of Xinjiang were exempted from the One-Child Policy and many Uyghur people emigrated out of Xinjiang to other parts of China, the percentage of Uyghur people in the total population of China increase steadily.
|Ethnic groups in Xinjiang, 2000 census|
Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
In general, Uyghurs are the majority in western Xinjiang, including the prefectures of Kashgar, Khotan, Kizilsu, and Aksu, as well as Turpan prefecture in eastern Xinjiang. Han Chinese are the majority in eastern and northern Xinjiang, including the cities of Urumqi, Karamay, Shihezi and the prefectures of Changji, Bortala, Bayin'gholin, Ili (especially the city of Kuitun), and Kumul. Kazakhs are mostly concentrated in Ili prefecture in northern Xinjiang.
|Major ethnic groups in Xinjiang by region, 2000 census|
|Changji AP + Wujiaqu DACLC||3.9%||75.1%||8.0%||13.0%|
|Aksu Prefecture + Alar DACLC||71.9%||26.6%||<0.1%||1.4%|
|Kashgar Prefecture + Tumushuke DACLC||89.3%||9.2%||<0.1%||1.5%|
|- Kuitun DACLC||0.5%||94.6%||1.8%||3.1%|
|- former Ili Prefecture||27.2%||32.4%||22.6%||17.8%|
|- Tacheng Prefecture||4.1%||58.6%||24.2%||13.1%|
|- Altay Prefecture||1.8%||40.9%||51.4%||5.9%|
1—Ili AP is composed of Kuitun DACLC, Tacheng Prefecture, Aletai Prefecture, as well as former Ili Prefecture. Ili Prefecture has been disbanded and its former area is now directly administered by Ili AP.
Source: 2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料，民族出版社，2003/9 (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)
Does not include members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
P = Prefecture; AP = Autonomous prefecture; PLC = Prefecture-level city; DACLC = Directly-administered county-level city
Some Uighur scholars claim descent from both the Turkic Uighurs and the pre-Turkic Tocharians (or Tokharians, whose language was Indo-European), and relatively fair-skin, hair and eyes, as well as other so-called 'Caucasoid' physical traits, are not uncommon among them. In general Uyghurs resemble those peoples who live around them in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Pakistan. In 2002, there were 9,632,600 males (growth rate of 1.0%) and 9,419,300 females (growth rate of 2.2%). The population overall growth rate was 10.9‰, with 16.3‰ of birth rate and 5.4‰ mortality rate.
With a population of about 20 million and an officially estimated 60,000 infections, Xinjiang has one-tenth of China’s AIDS cases and the highest HIV infection rate in the country. Chinese authorities estimate that Kashgar Prefecture, with a population of about three million, has 780 cases, but public health experts here say the real figure is probably four times that and rising fast.
Until recently, addicts were largely left to the police, who regarded them as simple criminals whose drug use was to be combated mercilessly. Resistance to treating drug addiction as a public health concern has been high, mirroring what some international health experts say was, more generally, a slow response to HIV/AIDS in China.
The Xinjiang Networking Transmission Limited operates the Urumqi People Broadcasting Station and the Xinjiang People Broadcasting Station, broadcasting in the Mandarin (dialect), Uyghur (dialect), Kazak, Mongolian, and the Tan Oak languages.
Professional sports teams in Xinjiang include:
 See also
 External links
Culture, history, photos
- The Opposite End of China (Xinjiang Blog)
- Uyghur site
- Uyghur Culture and History
- Photo gallery from CBC.ca Accessed December 14, 2006
|Province-level divisions administered by the People's Republic of China (PRC)|
|Provinces||Anhui · Fujian · Gansu · Guangdong · Guizhou · Hainan · Hebei · Heilongjiang · Henan · Hubei · Hunan · Jiangsu · Jiangxi · Jilin · Liaoning · Qinghai · Shaanxi · Shandong · Shanxi · Sichuan · Taiwan1 · Yunnan · Zhejiang|
|Autonomous regions||Guangxi · Inner Mongolia · Ningxia · Tibet (Xizang) · Xinjiang|
|Municipalities||Beijing · Chongqing · Shanghai · Tianjin|
|Special administrative regions||Hong Kong · Macau|
|Prefecture-level divisions of Xinjiang
|List of Xinjiang County-level divisions|
Azerbaijan1 • Bashkortostan2 • Chuvashia2 • Cyprus - Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus3 • Gagauzia4 • Kabardino-Balkaria2 • Karachay-Cherkessia2 • Karakalpakstan5 • Kazakhstan • Tatarstan2 • Turkmenistan • Turkey • Uzbekistan • Xinjiang6
Altai Republic2 • Khakassia2 • Kyrgyzstan • Sakha2 • Tuva2
Notes: (1) Includes the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic; (2) A federal subject of the Russian Federation; (3) See Cyprus dispute;
(4) Gagauzia is a territorial autonomous unit of Moldova; (5) Karakalpakstan is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan; (6) Xinjiang Uyghur is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China