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"Genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration." - Thomas Edison, Harper's Monthly (September 1931)
|Born:||February 11, 1847
Milan, Ohio, United States
|Died:||October 18, 1931
West Orange, New Jersey, United States
|Spouse:||Mary Edison, Mina Edison|
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life around the world. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park" by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production to the process of invention, and therefore is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.
Some of his inventions were not completely original but amounted to improvements of earlier inventions. Also, many of the inventions attributed to him were actually created by one or more of the numerous employees working under his direction. Nevertheless, Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,097 U.S. patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France and Germany.
 Early life
Thomas Edison was born in Milan, Ohio, the seventh and last child of Samuel Ogden Edison, Jr. (1804–1896) (born in Marshalltown, Nova Scotia, Canada) and Nancy Matthews Edison nee Elliott (1810–1871). His family was of Dutch origin.
In school, the young Edison's mind often wandered, and his teacher the Reverend Engle was overheard calling him "addled." This ended Edison's three months of official schooling. He recalled later, "My mother was the making of me. She was so true, so sure of me; and I felt I had something to live for, someone I must not disappoint." His mother then home schooled him. Much of his education came from reading R.G. Parker's School of Natural Philosophy.
Edison lost much of his hearing at age twelve. The cause of Edison's deafness has been the subject of many different theories. While some historians state his hearing loss may have been the result of a childhood bout of smallpox, according to Edison it was because he was pulled up to a train car by his ears.
Edison's family was forced to move to Port Huron, Michigan when the railroad bypassed Milan, but his life there was bittersweet. He sold candy and newspapers on trains running from Port Huron to Detroit.
Edison became a telegraph operator after he saved three-year-old Jimmie MacKenzie from being struck by a runaway train. Jimmie's father, station agent J.U. MacKenzie of Mount Clemens, Michigan, was so grateful that he trained Edison as a telegraph operator. After three months of training, Edison mastered the skill and was hired at a Western Union telegraph office. Edison's deafness allegedly aided him because it blocked out noises and prevented Edison from hearing the telegrapher sitting next to him. One of his mentors during those early years was a fellow telegrapher and inventor named Franklin Leonard Pope, who allowed the impoverished youth to live and work in the basement of his Elizabeth, New Jersey, home.
Some of his earliest inventions were related to telegraphy, including a stock ticker. Edison's first patent was for the electric vote recorder, (U. S. Patent 90,646), which was granted on June 1, 1869.
 Marriages and children
- Marion "Dot" Estelle Edison (1873–1965)
- Thomas "Dash" Alva Edison, Jr (1876–1935)
- William Leslie Edison (1878–1935)
- Madeleine Edison (1888–1979)
- Charles Edison (1890–1969), who took over the company upon his father's death and who later was elected Governor of New Jersey
- Theodore Edison (1898–1992).
 Beginning his career
Thomas Edison began his career as an inventor in Newark, New Jersey, with the automatic repeater and his other improved telegraphic devices, but the invention which first gained him fame was the phonograph in 1877. This accomplishment was so unexpected by the public at large as to appear almost magical. Edison became known as "The Wizard of Menlo Park," New Jersey, where he lived. His first phonograph recorded on tinfoil around a grooved cylinder and had poor sound quality. The tinfoil recordings could only be replayed a few times. In the 1880s, a redesigned model using wax-coated cardboard cylinders was produced by Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester Bell, and Charles Tainter. This was one reason that Thomas Edison continued work on his own "Perfected Phonograph."
Thomas Edison was a freethinker, and was most likely a deist, claiming he did not believe in "the God of the theologians," but did not doubt that "there is a Supreme Intelligence." He is quoted, "I believe that the science of chemistry alone almost proves the existence of an intelligent creator." However, he rejected the idea of the supernatural, along with such ideas as the soul, immortality, and a personal God. He maintained a position on the supernatural and the Christian religion that was best described as "truculent agnosticism." "Nature," he said, "is not merciful and loving, but wholly merciless, indifferent."
 Menlo Park
Edison's major innovation was the first industrial research lab, which was built in Menlo Park, New Jersey. It was the first institution set up with the specific purpose of producing constant technological innovation and improvement. Edison was legally attributed with most of the inventions produced there, though many employees carried out research and development work under his direction.
William Joseph Hammer, a consulting electrical engineer, began his duties as a laboratory assistant to Edison in December 1879. He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, iron ore separator, electric lighting, and other developing inventions. However, Hammer worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device. In 1880, he was appointed chief engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. In his first year, the plant under General Manager Francis Robbins Upton turned out 50,000 lamps. According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of incandescent electric lighting."
Most of Edison's patents were utility patents, which were protected for a 17 year period and included inventions or processes that are electrical, mechanical, or chemical in nature. About a dozen were design patents, which protect an ornamental design for a 14 year period. Like most inventions, his were not typically completely original, but improvements to prior art. The phonograph patent, on the other hand, was unprecedented as the first device to record and reproduce sounds. Edison did not invent the first electric light bulb, but instead invented the first commercially practical incandescent light. Several designs had already been developed by earlier inventors including the patent he purchased from Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans, Moses G. Farmer, Joseph Swan, James Bowman Lindsay, William Sawyer, Sir Humphry Davy, and Heinrich Göbel. Some of these early bulbs had such flaws as extremely short life, high expense to produce, and high current draw, making them difficult to apply on a large scale commercially. In 1878, Edison applied the term filament to the element of glowing wire carrying the current, although English inventor Joseph Swan had used the term prior to this. Edison took the features of these earlier designs and set his workers to the task of creating longer-lasting bulbs. By 1879, he had produced a new concept: a high resistance lamp in a very high vacuum, which would burn for hundreds of hours. While the earlier inventors had produced electric lighting in laboratory conditions dating back to a demonstration of a glowing wire by Alessandro Volta in 1800, Edison concentrated on commercial application and was able to sell the concept to homes and businesses by mass-producing relatively long-lasting light bulbs and creating a complete system for the generation and distribution of electricity.
The Menlo Park research lab was made possible by the sale of the quadruplex telegraph that Edison invented in 1874, which could send four simultaneous telegraph signals over the same wire. When Edison asked Western Union to make an offer, he was shocked at the unexpectedly large amount that Western Union offered; the patent rights were sold for $10,000. The quadruplex telegraph was Edison's first big financial success.
In just over a decade Edison's Menlo Park laboratory had expanded to consume two city blocks. Edison said he wanted the lab to have "a stock of almost every conceivable material." A newspaper article printed in 1887 reveals the seriousness of his claim, stating the lab contained "eight thousand kinds of chemicals, every kind of screw made, every size of needle, every kind of cord or wire, hair of humans, horses, hogs, cows, rabbits goats, minx, camels...silk in every texture, cocoons, various kinds of hoofs, shark's teeth, deer horns, tortoise shell...cork, resin, varnish and oil, ostrich feathers, a peacock's tail, jet, amber, rubber, all ores..." and the list goes on.
With Menlo Park, Edison had created the first industrial laboratory concerned with creating knowledge and then controlling its application.
 Carbon telephone transmitter
In 1877 and 1878, Edison invented and developed the carbon microphone used in all telephones along with the Bell receiver until the 1980s. After protracted patent litigation, a federal court ruled in 1892 that Edison and not Emile Berliner was the inventor of the carbon microphone. (Josephson, p146). The carbon microphone was also used in radio broadcasting and public address work through the 1920s.
 Electric light
After many experiments with platinum and other metal filaments, Edison returned to a carbon filament. The first successful test was on October 22, 1879; and lasted 13.5 hours. Edison continued to improve this design and by January 27, 1880, had U.S. patent 223,898 for a lamp that could last over 1,200 hours using a carbonized bamboo filament. Edison and his team did not find this commercially viable filament until more than a year after Edison filed his first patent application for "Electric Lights" on October 14, 1878 (U.S. patent 214,636).
In 1878, Edison formed the Edison Electric Light Company in New York City with several financiers, including J. P. Morgan and the members of the Vanderbilt family. Edison made the first public demonstration of his incandescent light bulb on December 31, 1879, in Menlo Park. It was during this time that he said, "We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles."
On October 8, 1883, the U.S. patent office ruled that Edison's patent was based on the work of William Sawyer and was therefore invalid. Litigation continued for nearly six years, until October 6, 1889, when a judge ruled that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid. To avoid a possible court battle with Joseph Swan, whose English patent had been awarded a year before Edison's, he and Swan formed a joint company called Ediswan to market the invention in Britain.
 Electric power distribution
Edison patented an electric distribution system in 1880, which was essential to capitalize on the invention of the electric lamp. The first investor-owned electric utility was the 1882 Pearl Street Station, New York City. It was on September 4, 1882, that Edison switched on his Pearl Street generating station's electrical power distribution system, which provided 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers in lower Manhattan. Earlier in the year, in January 1882 he had switched on the first steam generating power station at Holborn Viaduct in London. The DC supply system provided electricity supplies to street lamps and several private dwellings within a short distance of the station.
 War of currents
George Westinghouse and Edison became adversaries because of Edison's promotion of direct current for electric power distribution over the more easily transmitted alternating current (AC) system invented by Nikola Tesla and promoted by Westinghouse. Unlike DC, AC could be stepped up to very high voltages with transformers, sent over thinner and less expensive wires, and stepped down again at the destination for distribution to users.
Despite Edison's contempt for capital punishment, the war against AC led Edison to become involved in the development and promotion of the electric chair as a demonstration of AC's greater lethal potential versus the "safer" DC. Edison went on to carry out a brief but intense campaign to ban the use of AC or to limit the allowable voltage for safety purposes. As part of this campaign, Edison's employees publicly electrocuted dogs, cats, and in one case, an elephant to demonstrate the dangers of AC. AC replaced DC in most instances of generation and power distribution, enormously extending the range and improving the efficiency of power distribution.
Though widespread use of DC ultimately lost favor for distribution, it exists today primarily in long-distance high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems. Low voltage DC distribution continued to be used in high density downtown areas for many years and was replaced by AC low voltage network distribution in many central business districts. DC had the advantage that large battery banks could maintain continuous power through brief interruptions of the electric supply from generators and the transmission system. Utilities such as Commonwealth Edison in Chicago had rotary converters, also known as motor-generator sets, which could change DC to AC and AC to various frequencies in the early to mid 20th century. Utilities supplied rectifiers to convert the low voltage AC to DC for such DC loads as elevators, fans and pumps. There were still 1,600 DC customers in downtown New York City when the service was discontinued in 2005.
 Work relations
Frank J. Sprague, a competent mathematician and former naval officer, was recruited by Edward H. Johnson and joined the Edison organization in 1883. One of Sprague's significant contributions to the Edison Laboratory at Menlo Park was to expand Edison's mathematical methods. (Despite the common belief that Edison did not use mathematics, analysis of his notebooks reveal that he was an astute user of mathematical analysis, for example, determining the critical parameters of his electric lighting system including lamp resistance by a sophisticated analysis of Ohm's Law, Joule's Law and economics.) A key to Edison's success was a holistic rather than reductionist approach to invention, making extensive use of trial and error when no suitable theory existed. Since Sprague joined Edison in 1883 and Edison's output of patents peaked in 1880, it could be interpreted that the shift towards a reductionist analytical approach may not have been a positive move for Edison. Sprague's important analytical contributions, including correcting Edison's system of mains and feeders for central station distribution, form a counter argument to this. In 1884, Sprague decided his interests in the exploitation of electricity lay elsewhere, and he left Edison to found the Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Company. However, Sprague, who later developed many electrical innovations, always credited Edison for their work together.
Another of Edison's assistants was Nikola Tesla, who claimed that Edison promised him $50,000 if he succeeded in making improvements to his DC generation plants. Several months later, when he had finished the work and asked to be paid, Tesla claimed that Edison said, "When you become a full-fledged American you will appreciate an American joke." Tesla immediately resigned. This anecdote is somewhat doubtful, since at Tesla's salary of $18 per week the bonus would have amounted to over 53 years pay, and the amount was equal to the initial capital of the company. Tesla resigned when he was refused a raise to $25 per week (Jonnes, p110). Although Tesla accepted an Edison Medal later in life and professed a high opinion of Edison as an inventor and engineer, he remained bitter. The day after Edison died, the New York Times contained extensive coverage of Edison's life, with the only negative opinion coming from Tesla who was quoted as saying, "He had no hobby, cared for no sort of amusement of any kind and lived in utter disregard of the most elementary rules of hygiene" and that, "His method was inefficient in the extreme, for an immense ground had to be covered to get anything at all unless blind chance intervened and, at first, I was almost a sorry witness of his doings, knowing that just a little theory and calculation would have saved him 90 percent of the labor. But he had a veritable contempt for book learning and mathematical knowledge, trusting himself entirely to his inventor's instinct and practical American sense." When Edison was a very old man and close to death, he said, in looking back, that the biggest mistake he had made was that he never respected Tesla or his work.
There were 28 men recognized as Edison Pioneers.
 Media inventions
The key to Edison's fortunes was telegraphy. With knowledge gained from years of working as a telegraph operator, he learned the basics of electricity. This allowed him to make his early fortune with the stock ticker, the first electricity-based broadcast system. Edison patented the sound recording and reproducing phonograph (or gramophone in British English) in 1878. Edison was also granted a patent for the motion picture camera, although the invention itself was the work of Edison's British employee, W.K. Dickson. In 1891, Thomas Edison built a Kinetoscope, or peep-hole viewer. This device was installed in penny arcades, where people could watch short, simple films.
On August 9, 1892, Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph. In April 1896, Thomas Armat's Vitascope, manufactured by the Edison factory and marketed in Edison's name, was used to project motion pictures in public screenings in New York City. Later he exhibited motion pictures with voice soundtrack on cylinder recordings, mechanically synchronized with the film. In 1908, Edison started the Motion Picture Patents Company, which was a conglomerate of nine major film studios (commonly known as the Edison Trust). Thomas Edison was the first honorary fellow of the Acoustical Society of America, which was founded in 1929.
 Later years
Edison became the owner of his Milan, Ohio, birthplace in 1906. On his last visit, in 1923, he was shocked to find his old home still lit by lamps and candles.
Influenced by a fad diet that was popular in the day, in his last few years "the only liquid he consumed was a pint of milk every three hours." He believed this diet would restore his health.
Edison was active in business right up to the end. Just months before his death in 1931, the Lackawanna Railroad implemented electric trains in suburban service from Hoboken to Gladstone, Montclair and Dover in New Jersey. Transmission was by means of an overhead catenary system, with the entire project under the guidance of Thomas Edison. To the surprise of many, Thomas Edison was at the throttle of the very first MU (Multiple-Unit) train to depart Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken, driving the train all the way to Dover. As another tribute to his lasting legacy, the same fleet of cars Edison deployed on the Lackawanna in 1931 served commuters until their retirement in 1984. A special plaque commemorating the joint achievement of both the railway and Edison, can be seen today in the waiting room of Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken, presently operated by New Jersey Transit.
Edison purchased a home known as "Glenmont" in 1886 as a wedding gift for Mina in Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey. The remains of Edison and his wife, Mina, are now buried there. The 13.5 acre (55,000 m²) property is maintained by the National Park Service as the Edison National Historic Site. Thomas Edison died on October 18, 1931, in New Jersey at age 84. His final words to his wife were "It is very beautiful over there." Mina died in 1947. Edison's last breath is reportedly contained in a test tube at the Henry Ford Museum. Ford reportedly convinced Charles Edison to seal a test tube of air in the inventor's room shortly after his death, as a memento. A plaster death mask was also made.
In the 1880s, Thomas Edison bought property in Fort Myers, Florida, and built Seminole Lodge as a winter retreat. Henry Ford, the automobile magnate, later lived a few hundred feet away from Edison at his winter retreat, The Mangoes. Edison even contributed technology to the automobile. They were friends until Edison's death.
Although in his early years Edison worked alone, he built up a research and development team to a considerable number while at his Menlo Park research laboratory. His staff were generally told to carry out his directions in conducting research and he drove them hard to produce results. When he was absent from the lab, the pace of work slowed greatly. The large research group, which included engineers and other workers, based much of their research on work done by others before them.
Many other inventors had worked on the development of an incandescent light bulb and some had even patented it before Edison. Edison's own inventions are often mistakenly credited as Edison's work alone, when in fact a number of employees actually worked under his direction. Many people refer to Edison's work as the first incandescent light bulb with high resistance, a small radiating area, and a commercially and uninhibitally but still useful lifetime. In other words his application for patent was presented as the only design suitable for use by large energy companies like the one he owned and ran. However, the US Patent Office ruled on October 8, 1883 that Edison's design was based on the prior work of William Sawyer and his application was thus invalid. Edison had already lost an earlier patent dispute in British court when it was found that Joseph Swan received a patent in 1878 for the same bulb that Edison tried to claim as his own in the US in 1879. 
Edison stood to make significantly more money by manufacturing and selling a light bulb that he could patent rather than licensing it. For example, in 1880 Edison's company had produced 130,000 handmade lamps in the 1850s vision of John Wellington Starr but he sold them as Edison lamps. Edison's true success, like his friend Henry Ford, was in his ability to maximize profits through establishment of mass-production systems and intellectual property rights. This dampened the success of less profitable work by others who were focused on inventing longer-lasting high-efficiency technology.
Edison was often an opponent to technological innovation and change, perhaps because they threatened his business model. In 1887 there were 121 Edison power stations in the United States that delivered DC electricity to customers. When the limitations of Direct Current (DC) were discussed by the public, Edison launched a propaganda campaign to convince people that Alternating Current (AC) was far too dangerous to use. The problem with DC was that the power plants could only economically deliver DC electricity to customers about one and a half miles from the generating station, so it was only suitable for central business districts. When George Westinghouse suggested using high-voltage AC instead, as it could carry electricity hundreds of miles with marginal loss of power, Edison waged a "War of Currents" to prevent AC from being adopted. He repeatedly electrocuted animals with 1000V of alternating current to 'prove' that AC was unsafe, even though protection from electrocution by AC or DC is essentially the same. One of the more notable occasions when Edison electrocuted animals was when in 1903, his workers electrocuted Topsy the elephant at Luna Park, near Coney Island, after she had killed several men and her owners wanted her put to death. His company filmed the electrocution. Thomas Edison thus introduced the practice of execution by electrocution.
The AC system was eventually adopted, despite Edison staging public electrocutions. The system used today was devised by many contributors including Nikola Tesla, George Westinghouse, Lucien Gaulard, John Dixon Gibbs, and Oliver Shallenger from 1881 to 1889.
Many tributes have been made to Thomas Edison. Several places and objects have been named after him, including the town of Edison, New Jersey, and Thomas Edison State College, a nationally-known college for adult learners in Trenton, New Jersey. There is a Thomas Alva Edison Memorial Tower and Museum in the town of Edison. In Beaumont, Texas there is an Edison Museum, even though Edison never visited Beaumont. In the Netherlands, major music awards are named after him. The City Hotel, in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, was the first building to be lit with Edison's three-wire system. The hotel was renamed The Hotel Edison, and retains that name today. The "Incredible Machines: Contraptions" game series has an alligator with the name Edison (with other animals given scientist names).
The United States Navy named the USS Edison, a Gleaves class destroyer, in his honor in 1940. The ship was decommissioned a few months after the end of World War II. In 1962, the Navy commissioned USS Thomas A. Edison, a fleet ballistic missile nuclear-powered submarine. Decommissioned on 1 December 1983, Thomas A. Edison was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on April 30, 1986. She went through the Navy’s Nuclear Powered Ship and Submarine Recycling Program at Bremerton, Washington, beginning on October 1, 1996. When she finished the program on December 1, 1997, she ceased to exist as a complete ship and was listed as scrapped.
The Edison Medal was created on February 11, 1904, by a group of Edison's friends and associates. Four years later the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), later IEEE, entered into an agreement with the group to present the medal as its highest award. The first medal was presented in 1909 to Elihu Thomson, and ironically, was awarded to Nikola Tesla in 1917. The Edison Medal is the oldest award in the area of electrical and electronics engineering, and is presented annually "for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts."
Several landmarks exist in honor of Edison. The Port Huron Museums, in Port Huron, Michigan, restored the original depot that Thomas Edison worked out of as a young newsbutcher. The depot has appropriately been named the Thomas Edison Depot Museum. The town has many Edison historical landmarks including the gravesites of Edison's parents.
Life magazine (USA), in a special double issue, placed Edison first in the list of the "100 Most Important People in the Last 1000 Years," noting that the light bulb he promoted "lit up the world." He was ranked thirty-fifth on Michael H. Hart's list of the most influential figures in history. In 1940, his life was documented on the screen when Spencer Tracy starred as Edison in Edison, The Man." He has been called the fifteenth Greatest American.
In recognition of the enormous contribution inventors make to the nation and the world, the Congress, pursuant to Senate Joint Resolution 140 (Public Law 97 - 198), has designated February 11, the anniversary of the birth of Thomas Alva Edison, as National Inventor's Day.
In 1879, Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam wrote the book "L'Ève Future" (translated into English as "Tomorrow's Eve"), about a fictional Thomas Edison who creates the ideal (artificial) woman!
In 1887, Edison won the Matteucci Medal.
 Companies bearing Edison's name
- Edison General Electric, now General Electric
- Commonwealth Edison, now part of Exelon
- Consolidated Edison
- Edison International
- Southern California Edison
- Edison Mission Energy
- Edison Capital
- Detroit Edison, a unit of DTE Energy
- Edison Sault Electric Company, a unit of Wisconsin Energy
- Metropolitan Edison
- Ohio Edison
- Toledo Edison
- Edison S.p.A., a unit of Italenergia
- Boston Edison, a unit of NSTAR
- WEEI radio station in Boston, established by Edison Electric Illuminating Company (hence the call letters), the forerunner of Boston Edison
- Edison was a strong supporter of Montessori schools in the United States.
- While working with Alexander Graham Bell to discover words of greeting, Edison is credited as creating the word "Hello" as a telephone greeting in 1877. Bell, however, preferred "Ahoy-hoy" as a greeting. (Hello is a variant on the old word hallo.)
- Edison was so fascinated by Morse Code that he taught it to his girlfriend Mary Stilwell, proposed marriage to her in the code, and nicknamed their first two children "Dot" and "Dash".
- Edison's company was considerably late in the business of releasing music on phonographs. Reportedly, Edison considered his invention to be limited to a business dictation machine, and the concept of pre-recorded music never crossed his mind.
- At the turn of the last century, Edison saw modern medicine at the crossroads. In 1902 he wrote of Medicine being "played out" which prompted his oft repeated quote: "The doctor of the future will give no medicine, but will instruct his patient in the care of the human frame, in diet and in the cause and prevention of disease." he continued in that vein: "There were never so many able, active minds at work on the problems of diseases as now, and all their discoveries are tending to the simple truth — that you can't improve on nature." for full quote see wikiquote
- Mrs. Thomas Alva Edison was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
 See also
- List of Edison patents
- Thomas Edison in popular culture
- History of the Light Bulb
- List of people on stamps of Ireland
- USS Edison (DD-439)
- John I. Beggs
- Animated Hero Classics - Animated DVD biography series of historical figures, including Thomas Edison
- List of archetypal names
- "A Streak of Luck," by Robert Conot, Seaview Books, New York, 1979, ISBN 0-87223-521-1
- "Edison: The man who made the future," by Ronald W. Clark, ISBN 0-354-04093-6
- "Edison" by Matthew Josephson. McGraw Hill, New York, 1959, ISBN 0-07-033046-8
- "Edison: Inventing the Century" by Neil Baldwin, University of Chicago Press, 2001, ISBN 0-226-03571-9
- "Edison: A Life of Invention," by Paul Israel, Wiley, 1998, ISBN 0-471-36270-0
- "Edison and the Electric Chair" Mark Essig, ISBN 0-7509-3680-0
- "Working at Inventing: Thomas A. Edison and the Menlo Park Experience," edited by William S. Pretzer, Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village, Dearborn, Michigan, 1989, ISBN 0-933728-33-6 (cloth) ISBN 0-933728-34-4 (paper)
- Ernst Angel: Edison. Sein Leben und Erfinden. Berlin: Ernst Angel Verlag, 1926.
- Mark Essig: Edison & the Electric Chair: A Story of Light and Death. New York: Walker & Company, 2003. ISBN 0-8027-1406-4
- Jill Jonnes, Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World. New York: Random House, 2003. ISBN 0-375-50739-6
- ^ Baldwin, Neal (1995). Edison: Inventing the Century. Hyperion, 3-5. ISBN 0-7868-6041-3.
- ^ Edison Family Album. US National Park Service. Retrieved on March 11, 2006.
- ^ Timeline (November 5, 2004). Retrieved on June 6, 2006.
- ^ Baldwin, page 36
- ^ U. S. Patent 90,646
- ^  Rutgers University, The Edison Papers. Retrieved March 20, 2007
- ^  IEEE Virtual Museum. retrieved Jan 15, 2007
- ^ Murphy, John P.M.. Murphy's Law: Thomas Alva Edison. Retrieved on January 8, 2007.
- ^ Vernon, Thomas S.. Thomas Alva Edison. Retrieved on March 11, 2006.
- ^ Evans, Harold, "They Made America." Little, Brown and Company, New York, 2004. ISBN 0-316-27766-5. page152.
- ^ Moses G. Farmer, Eliot's Inventor. Retrieved on March 11, 2006.
- ^ Shulman, Seth (1999). Owning the Future. Houghton Mifflin Company, 158-160.
- ^ Paul Israel, Edison: a Life of Invention, Wiley (1998), page 186.
- ^  Rutgers University, Edison Papers Project. Retrieved March 22, 2007
- ^ "Keynote Address - Second International ALN1 Conference (PDF)
- ^ IMDB entry on Electrocuting an Elephant (1903). Retrieved on March 11, 2006.
- ^ Tesla - Master of Lightning:Coming to America. Retrieved on March 11, 2006.
- ^ Tesla says Edison was an empiricist. 1931. New York Times, October 19, 1931, p.25.
- ^ Paul Israel. Edison : A Life of Invention.
- ^ Thomas Alva Edison and the invention factory. Adrio Communications Ltd. Retrieved on June 6, 2006.
- ^ Maria Montessori: A Brief Biography. Retrieved on January 6, 2007.
- ^  Koenigsberg, Allen "The First 'Hello!': Thomas Edison, the Phonograph and the Telephone – Part 1" Antique Phonograph Magazine, Vol.VIII No.6. Retrieved March 30, 2007
- ^  Koenigsberg, Allen. "The First 'Hello!': Thomas Edison, the Phonograph and the Telephone – Part 2" Antique Phonograph Magazine, Vol.VIII No.6. Retrieved March 23, 2007
- ^ "Today in Technology History"(August 15), The Center for the Study of Technology and Society. Retrieved March 23, 2007
- ^ As stated in the book "QI: The Book of General Ignorance"
 External links
- Works by Thomas Edison at Project Gutenberg
- Edison cylinder recordings, from the Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara Library.
- 4-disc DVD set containing over 140 films produced by the Thomas Edison Company.
- Complete list of 1,093 patents.
- See Thomas Edison's patent application for the light bulb at the National Archives.
- Thomas Edison at the Internet Movie Database
- Thomas Edison at the Internet Movie Database - Animated biography DVD series, includes Thomas Edison
- Historical Deadwood Newspaper accounts of Edison's 1880 placer and pulp sluicing process and electrifying Deadwood SD 1883 before the illumination of the White House 1891
- Thomas Edison Hates Cats - an online video about Thomas Edison and electricity.
- Biography links
- "Edison, His Life And Inventions" by Frank Lewis Dyer at Worldwideschool.org
- "Thomas Edison," by Gerry Beales.
- "Thomas Alva Edison" by John Patrick Michael Murphy.
- A short Thomas Edison biography
- Edison, His Life and Inventions by Frank Lewis Dyer and Thomas Commerford Martin', available at Project Gutenberg.
- "Thomas Alva Edison and the invention factory"
- The New Student's Reference Work/Edison, Thomas Alva
- Historic sites
- Edison Birthplace Museum
- Thomas Edison House
- Thomas Edison Winter Estate
- Edison National Historic Site
- Menlo Park
- "Menlo Park Reminiscences, Volume 1," by Francis Jehl, originally published by Edison Institute, Dearborn, Michigan, 1937. Reprinted by Dover Publications, Mineola, NY, 1990. ISBN 0-486-26357-6
- Edison Depot Museum
- Edison exhibit and Menlo Park Laboratory at Henry Ford Museum
- Edison Museum
- Rutgers: Edison Papers
- Rutgers: Edison Patents
- Edisonian Museum Antique Electrics
- Thomas A. Edison in his laboratory in New Jersey, 1901
- "Edison's Miracle of Light" American Experience, PBS.
- William J. Hammer collection — c. 1874–1935, 1955–1957. Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
|NAME||Edison, Thomas Alva|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American inventor and businessman|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1847-02-11|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Milan, Ohio, United States|
|DATE OF DEATH||1931-10-18|
|PLACE OF DEATH||West Orange, New Jersey, United States|