The Guardian

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Front page from a February 2007 edition
Type Daily newspaper
Format Berliner

Owner Guardian Media Group
Editor Alan Rusbridger
Founded 1821
Political allegiance Centre Left
Language English
Price £0.70 (Monday-Friday)
£1.40 (Saturday)
Headquarters 119 Farringdon Road, London
Circulation 378,228 (August 2006 - January 2007)

Website: Guardian Unlimited

The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. It is published Monday to Saturday in the Berliner format. Until 1959 it was called The Manchester Guardian, reflecting its provincial origins; the paper is still occasionally referred to by this name, especially in North America (to distinguish it from other newspapers with similar names). Although most of the newspaper's production has been based in London since 1964, the newspaper's head office remains in the Spinningfields district of Manchester. The newspaper is printed in both Manchester and London.

Contents

[edit] Stance

Editorial articles in The Guardian are generally in sympathy with the middle-ground liberal to left-wing end of the political spectrum. This is reflected in the paper's readership: a MORI Poll taken between April-June 2000 showed that 80% of Guardian readers were Labour Party voters (cited in International Socialism Spring 2003, ISBN 1-898876-97-5); according to another MORI poll taken in 2004, 44% of Guardian readers vote Labour and 37% vote Liberal Democrat[1].

[edit] Format

Today The Guardian is the only British national newspaper to publish in full colour (although the edition printed in Northern Ireland still has much black-and-white content [2]); it was also the first newspaper in the UK to be printed on the Berliner size. In November 2005 The Guardian had a certified average daily circulation of 378,618 copies (November 2005), as compared to sales of 904,955 for the Daily Telegraph, 692,581 for The Times, and 261,193 for The Independent[3].

[edit] Awards

It has been awarded the National Newspaper of the Year in 1999 and 2006 by the British Press Awards, as well as being co-winner of the World's Best-designed Newspaper as awarded by the Society for News Design (2006). The Guardian Unlimited website won the Best Newspaper category two years running in the 2005 and 2006 Webby Awards, beating (in 2005) the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal and Variety[4]. It has been the winner for six years in a row of the British Newspaper Awards for Best Electronic Daily Newspaper.[5] The site won an Eppy award from the US-based magazine Editor & Publisher in 2000 for the best-designed newspaper online service [6]. The website is well-known and recognised for its commentary on sporting events, particularly its over-by-over cricket commentary.

[edit] Ownership

The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group of newspapers, radio stations, and new media including The Observer Sunday newspaper, the Manchester Evening News, Money Observer financial magazine, The Guardian Weekly International newspaper, Guardian Monthly magazine, Guardian Abroad website, and Guardian Unlimited, one of the most popular online news resources on the Internet[citation needed]. All the aforementioned are owned by The Scott Trust, a charitable foundation which aims to ensure the newspaper's editorial independence in perpetuity, maintaining its financial health to ensure it does not become vulnerable to take over by for-profit media groups, and the serious compromise of editorial independence that this often brings.

The Guardian has been consistently loss-making. The National Newspaper division of GMG, which also includes The Observer, reported operating losses of £49.9m in 2006, up from £18.6m in 2005.[7] The paper is therefore heavily dependent on cross-subsidisation from profitable companies within the group, including Auto Trader and the Manchester Evening News.

The Guardian's ownership by the Scott Trust is likely a factor in it being the only British national daily to conduct (since 2003) an annual social, ethical and environmental audit in which it examines, under the scrutiny of an independent external auditor, its own behaviour as a company.[8] It is also the only British daily national newspaper to employ an internal ombudsman (called the 'reader's editor') to handle complaints and corrections.

The Guardian and its parent groups participate in Project Syndicate,[9] established by George Soros, and intervened in 1995 to save the Mail & Guardian in South Africa, but Guardian Media Group sold the majority of its shares in the Mail & Guardian in 2002.

[edit] History

[edit] Political alignment and controversies

The Guardian's Newsroom visitor centre and archive (No 60), with an old sign with the name The Manchester Guardian
The Guardian's Newsroom visitor centre and archive (No 60), with an old sign with the name The Manchester Guardian

The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by a group of non-conformist businessmen headed by John Edward Taylor. The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that "it will zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty … it will warmly advocate the cause of Reform; it will endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy; and to support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures."

Its most famous editor, C P Scott, made the Manchester Guardian into a nationally famous newspaper. He was editor for 57 years from 1872, and became its owner when he bought the paper from the estate of Taylor's son in 1907. Under Scott the paper's moderate editorial line became more radical, supporting Gladstone when the Liberals split in 1886, and opposing the Second Boer War against popular opinion.

Scott's friendship with Chaim Weizmann played a role in the Balfour Declaration, and in 1948 the Guardian was a supporter of the State of Israel. The story of the relationship between the Guardian and the zionist movement and Israel is told in Daphna Baram's book "Disenchantment: The Guardian and Israel".[10]

In June 1936 ownership of the paper was transferred to the Scott Trust (named after the last owner, John Russell Scott, who was the first chairman of the Trust). This move ensured the paper's independence, and it was then noted for its eccentric style, its moralising and its detached attitude to its finances.

Traditionally affiliated with the centrist Liberal Party, and with a northern circulation base, the paper earned a national reputation and the respect of the left during the Spanish Civil War, when along with the Liberal News Chronicle, the Labour Daily Herald, the Communist Daily Worker and several Sunday and weekly papers it supported the republicans against the insurgent nationalists led by General Francisco Franco. Consistent in its anti-establishment stance, the Guardian also provided one of the few probing and dissenting voices during the 1957 Suez Crisis.

[edit] After 1959

In 1983 the paper was at the centre of a controversy surrounding documents regarding the stationing of cruise missiles in Britain that were leaked to the Guardian by civil servant Sarah Tisdall. The Guardian eventually complied with a court order to hand over the documents to the authorities, which resulted in a prison sentence for Tisdall.

In 1995, both the Granada Television programme World In Action and The Guardian were sued for libel by the then cabinet minister Jonathan Aitken, for their allegation that the Saudi Prince Mohammed bin Fahd had paid for Aitken and his wife to stay at the Hôtel Ritz in Paris, which would have amounted to accepting a bribe on Aitken's part. Aitken publicly stated he would fight with "the simple sword of truth and the trusty shield of British fair play".[11] The court case proceeded, and in 1997 The Guardian produced evidence that Aitken's claim of his wife paying for the hotel stay was untrue.[12] In 1999, Aitken was jailed for perjury and perverting the course of justice.[13]

In the early 2000s the newspaper challenged the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Treason Felony Act 1848. [14][15]

During the Afghanistan and Iraq wars The Guardian attracted a significant proportion of anti-war readers as one of the mass-media media outlets most critical of UK and USA military initiatives.

Despite its early support for the Zionist movement, in recent decades The Guardian has often been perceived as critical of Israel. In December 2003 journalist Julie Burchill left the paper for The Times, citing this as one of the reasons for her move.[16] In a recent controversy, the paper has been accused by Alan Dershowitz writing in the Jerusalem Post of bias and failure to print corrections of mis-statements of fact in their articles and editorials.[17] This allegation was denied by the Guardian's foreign editor, Harriet Sherwood, who says the paper aims to cover all viewpoints in the Israel-Palestine conflict.[18]

In August 2004, for the US presidential election, the daily G2 supplement, edited by Ian Katz, launched an experimental letter-writing campaign in Clark County, Ohio, a small county in a swing state. Katz bought a voter list from the county for $25 and asked people to write to those on the list undecided in the election and, giving them an impression of the international view and the importance of making the correct decision. There was something of a backlash to this campaign, and on 21 October 2004, the paper retired it.

In October 2004 The Guardian published a humour column by Charlie Brooker in its entertainment guide, which appeared to call for the assassination of US President George W. Bush.[19] This caused some controversy and the paper was forced to issue an apology and remove the article from its website.[20]

Following the 7 July 2005 London bombings, The Guardian published an article on its comment pages by Dilpazier Aslam, a 27 year old British Muslim journalism trainee from Yorkshire.[21] Aslam was a member of Hizb ut-Tahrir, an Islamist group, and had published a number of articles on their website. According to the paper, it did not know that Aslam was a member of Hizb ut-Tahrir when he applied to become a trainee, though several staff members were informed of this once he started at the paper.[22] The Home Office has claimed the group's "ultimate aim is the establishment of an Islamic state (Caliphate), according to Hizb ut-Tahrir via non-violent means". The Guardian asked Aslam to resign his membership of the group and, when he did not do so, terminated his employment.[23]

Overall, nevertheless, the paper is generally held up as an example of good journalism and its comment and opinion pages, though dominated by left-liberal writers and academics like Polly Toynbee, allows significant space for right of centre voices such as Simon Jenkins.

[edit] Format and distribution

The first edition was published on May 5, 1821,[24] at which time the Guardian was a weekly, published on Saturdays and costing 7d.; the stamp duty on newspapers (4d. per sheet) forced the price up so high that it was uneconomic to publish more frequently. When the stamp duty was cut in 1836 the Guardian added a Wednesday edition; with the abolition of the tax in 1855 it became a daily paper costing 2d.

In 1952 the paper took the step of printing news on the front page, replacing the adverts that had hitherto filled that space. The editor AP Wadsworth wrote: "It is not a thing I like myself, but it seems to be accepted by all the newspaper pundits that it is preferable to be in fashion."

The Guardian's offices in London
The Guardian's offices in London

In 1959 the paper dropped "Manchester" from its title, becoming simply The Guardian, and in 1964 it moved to London, losing some of its regional agenda but continuing to be heavily subsidised by sales of the less intellectual but much more profitable Manchester Evening News. The financial position remained extremely poor into the 1970s; at one time it was in merger talks with The Times. The paper consolidated its centre-left stance during the 1970s and 1980s but was both shocked and revitalised by the launch of The Independent in 1986 which competed for a similar readership and provoked the entire broadsheet industry into a fight for circulation.

On 12 February 1988 The Guardian had a significant redesign; as well as improving the quality of its printers' ink, it also changed its masthead to the now familiar juxtaposition of an italic Garamond "The", with a bold Helvetica "Guardian", which remained in use until the 2005 redesign.

In 1992 it relaunched its features section as G2, a tabloid-format supplement. This innovation was widely copied by the other "quality" broadsheets, and ultimately led to the rise of "compact" papers and The Guardian's move to the Berliner format. In 1993 the paper declined to participate in the broadsheet 'price war' started by Rupert Murdoch's The Times. In June 1993, The Guardian bought The Observer from Lonrho, thus gaining a serious Sunday newspaper partner with similar political views.

The Guardian's offices in London
The Guardian's offices in London

Its international weekly edition is now titled The Guardian Weekly, though it retained the title Manchester Guardian Weekly for some years after the home edition had moved to London. It includes sections from a number of other internationally significant newspapers of a somewhat left-of-centre inclination, including Le Monde. The Guardian Weekly is also linked to a website for expatriates Guardian Abroad.

In 2004, The Guardian introduced an online digital version of its print edition, allowing readers to download pages from the last 14 issues as PDF files.

[edit] Moving to the Berliner paper format

The last broadsheet edition of The Guardian, along with a preview of the Berliner format and its competitor The Independent, all from 2005-09-10. A sheet of A4 paper is shown for scale.
The last broadsheet edition of The Guardian, along with a preview of the Berliner format and its competitor The Independent, all from 2005-09-10. A sheet of A4 paper is shown for scale.

In 2004, The Guardian announced plans to change to a "Berliner" or "midi" format similar to that used by Le Monde in France and some other European papers; at 470×315 mm, this is slightly larger than a traditional tabloid. Planned for the autumn of 2005, this change was either a response to, or has the same cause as, the moves by The Times and The Independent to start publishing in tabloid (or compact) format. On Thursday 1 September 2005 The Guardian announced that it would launch the new format on Monday 12 September 2005.[25] Sister Sunday newspaper The Observer went over to the same format on 8 January 2006.

The advantage that The Guardian saw in the Berliner format was that though it is only a little wider than a tabloid, and is thus equally easy to read on public transport, its greater height gives more flexibility in page design. The new presses mean that printing can go right across the 'gutter', the strip down the middle of the centre page, allowing the paper to print striking double page pictures. The new presses also made the paper the first UK national able to print in full colour on every page.

The format switch was accompanied by a comprehensive redesign of the paper's look. On Friday 9 September 2005 the newspaper unveiled its new look front page, which débuted on Monday 12 September 2005. Designed by Mark Porter, the new look includes a new masthead for the newspaper, its first since 1988. A typeface family called Guardian Egyptian, designed by Paul Barnes (designer) and Christian Schwartz, was created for the new design. No other typeface is used anywhere in the paper - all stylistic variations are based on various forms of Guardian Egyptian.

The switch cost Guardian Newspapers £80 million and involved setting up new printing presses in east London and Manchester. This was because prior to the Guardian's move, no printing presses in the UK could produce newspapers in the Berliner format. There were additional complications as one of the Guardian's presses was part-owned by groups responsible for The Daily Telegraph and The Daily Express, and it was contracted to use the plant until 2009. Another press was shared with the Guardian Media Group's north western local tabloid papers, which did not wish to switch to the Berliner format.

The new format was generally well received by Guardian readers, who were asked to feedback on the changes. The only controversial issue was the dropping of the Doonesbury cartoon strip. The Guardian reported thousands of calls and emails complaining about its loss and within 24 hours, the decision was reversed and the strip was reinstated the following week. Section editor Ian Katz, who was responsible for dropping it, apologised in the editors' blog saying, "I'm sorry, once again, that I made you - and the hundreds of fellow fans who have called our helpline or mailed our comments' address - so cross" Guardian Unlimited - Guardian Reborn. Some readers are however dissatisfied as the earlier deadline needed for the all-colour sports section has meant that coverage of late-finishing evening football matches is less satisfactory than before the redesign in the editions supplied to some parts of the country.

The investment was rewarded with a circulation rise. In December 2005, the average daily sale stood at 380,693, nearly 6% higher than the figure for December 2004.[26] In 2006 the US-based Society for News Design voted the Guardian and Polish daily Rzeczpospolita as the best-designed newspapers in the world, choosing them from 389 entries from 44 countries.[27]

[edit] Supplements and features

The Saturday edition of The Guardian includes some sections of varying sizes.
The Saturday edition of The Guardian includes some sections of varying sizes.
The Guardian from the 21st January 2007 including the G2 supplement
The Guardian from the 21st January 2007 including the G2 supplement

On each weekday The Guardian comes with the G2 supplement containing feature articles, columns, television and radio listings, and the quick crossword. Since the change to the Berliner format, there is a separate daily Sport section. Other regular supplements during the week include:

Monday 
MediaGuardian, Office Hours
Tuesday 
EducationGuardian
Wednesday 
SocietyGuardian (covers the British public sector and related issues)
Thursday 
TechnologyGuardian
Friday 
Film & Music
Saturday 
The Guide (a weekly listings magazine), Weekend (the colour supplement), Review (covers literature), Money, Work, Rise (covering careers for new graduates), Travel and Family.

Though the main news section was in the large broadsheet format, the supplements were all in the half-sized tabloid format, with the exception of the glossy Weekend section which was a 290×245mm magazine and The Guide which was in a small 225×145mm format.

With the change of the main section to the Berliner format, the specialist sections are now printed as Berliner, as is a now-daily Sports section, but G2 has moved to a "magazine-sized" demi-Berliner format. A Thursday Technology section and daily science coverage in the news section replaced Life and Online. Weekend and The Guide are still in the same small formats as before the change.

Monday through Thursday, the supplements carry substantial quantities of recruitment advertising as well as editorial on their specialised topics.

[edit] Regular columns

[edit] Regular cartoon strips

Editorial cartoonists Martin Rowson and Steve Bell get frequent hate mail for their treatment of controversial topics. [28].

[edit] Online media

Main article: Guardian Unlimited

The Guardian publishes all of its news online, with free access both to current news and an archive of three million stories. A third of the site's hits are for items over a month old[29]. The website also offers PDF editions of the newspaper for a monthly subscription fee. Free, unrestricted access has been cited as one of factors in the site's popularity.

The Guardian also has a number of talkboards that are noted for their mix of political disussion and whimsy. They were spoofed in the Guardian's own regular humorous Chatroom column in G2. The spoof column purported to be excerpts from a chatroom on permachat.co.uk, a real URL which points to The Guardian's talkboards.

Possibly the most exciting feature of its online presence is the blog 'Comment is Free' section where the public is invited to join in rigorous and sometimes bad-tempered debates about political issues. The debates are triggered by articles by Guardian columnists and contributors, many of which end up facing heavy criticism from readers.

The Guardian has also launched a dating website, Soulmates, and is experimenting with new media, offering a free twelve part weekly Podcast series by Ricky Gervais[30]. In January 2006 Gervais' show topped the iTunes podcast chart having been downloaded by two million listeners worldwide[31], and is scheduled to be listed in the 2007 Guinness Book of Records as the most downloaded Podcast[32].

[edit] The Guardian in popular culture

The name The Grauniad for the paper originated with the satirical magazine Private Eye. It came about because of a reputation for text mangling, technical typesetting failures and typographical errors, hence the popular myth that the paper once misspelled its own name on the page one masthead as The Gaurdian, though many recall the more inventive The Grauniad. Although such errors are now less frequent than they used to be, owing to the end of hot-metal typesetting, the 'Corrections and clarifications' column can still often provide some amusement. There were even a number of errors in the first issue, perhaps the most notable being a notification that there would soon be some goods sold at atction instead of auction.

Until the foundation of the Independent, the Guardian was the only broadsheet national daily newspaper in Britain that was not clearly Conservative in its political affiliation[citation needed]. The term "Guardian reader" is therefore often used pejoratively by those who do not agree with the paper or self-deprecatingly by those who do. The stereotype of a Guardian reader is a person with leftist or liberal politics rooted in the 1960s, working in the public sector, regularly eating lentils and muesli, living in north London (especially Camden and Islington), wearing sandals and believing in alternative medicine and natural medicine as evidenced by Labour MP Kevin Hughes's largely rhetorical question in the House of Commons on November 19, 2001:

"Does my right hon. Friend find it bizarre — as I do — that the yoghurt- and muesli-eating, Guardian-reading fraternity are only too happy to protect the human rights of people engaged in terrorist acts, but never once do they talk about the human rights of those who are affected by them?"[33]

The Guardian's science coverage is now extensive. At the same time, the paper appears to have moved away from covering alternative therapies. Its Weekend supplement featured a column by Emma Mitchell, a natural health therapist, until August 2006 and G2 was, until the relaunch, home to Edzard Ernst's weekly column on complementary medicine (Ernst is professor of complementary medicine at the Peninsula Medical School, [34]), the paper now carries the debunking Bad Science[35] column by Ben Goldacre and a quizzical column in G2 called The Sceptic,[36] which looks at the evidence for popular treatments and remedies (and Ernst took an evidence-based approach to appraisal of alternative therapies in his column). As alternative and complementary medicine has become more widely accepted most of the quality dailies now feature at least one column or writer devoted to the subject.

The stereotype of the Guardian reader is, however, a persistent feature of British political discourse. Even doctors have perpetuated it by using the acronym GROLIES (Guardian Reader Of Low Intelligence in Ethnic Skirt) on patient notes.[37]

The Guardian, along with other British news outlets, has a tradition of spoof articles on April Fool's Day, sometimes contributed by regular advertisers such as BMW. The most elaborate of these was a travel supplement on San Serriffe, whilst an article in the Guardian dated April 1, 2006 written by one Olaf Priol suggested that Chris Martin of Coldplay would be supporting the Conservatives at the next General Election and had already written a campaign song for them. Olaf Priol is an anagram of April Fool.

[edit] References in fiction

  • In the play Hobson's Choice Henry Horatio Hobson worries that his reputation will be in tatters after 'trespassing'. He comments that if the news were to be intercepted by the Manchester Guardian then everyone would know.
  • The 1984 Christmas special of Yes Minister shows a number of newspapers tipping Jim Hacker as the next Prime Minister. The Guardian is among them, but its name is spelt The Gaurdian. In Episode 6 a group of pro-badger protesters tell Jim Hacker that the Guardian told them the area they are fighting to save has been inhabitated by badgers for centuries. In fact Hacker points out jokingly the "bodgers" have lived there for centuries, satirising the Guardian's reputation for spelling errors.
  • In Episode 4 of the second series of Yes, Prime Minister, Jim Hacker says:
"I know exactly who reads the papers: The Daily Mirror is read by people who think they run the country; The Guardian is read by people who think they ought to run the country; The Times is read by people who actually do run the country; The Daily Mail is read by the wives of the people who run the country; The Financial Times is read by people who own the country; The Morning Star is read by people who think the country ought to be run by another country; and The Daily Telegraph is read by people who think it is."
Sir Humphrey: "Prime Minister, what about the people who read The Sun?"
Bernard Woolley: "Sun readers don't care who runs the country, as long as she's got big tits."
  • In the Young Ones episode "Boring," Rick eagerly notes that The Guardian has an article on how to get an increased student grant. Unfortunately the paper has totally mangled the spelling of a key part of it, leaving Rick with no idea how to get the increased grant. Worse still, the misspelling happens to sound the same as a Satanic chant, so that when Neil repeats what Rick read out loud he accidentally summons a demon who tries to kill everyone there.
  • In the Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy, an entire planet goes into hibernation to wait out a galactic recession, only reviving themselves when the stock market reaches a satisfactorily high level for their needs. "Arthur [Dent], a regular Guardian reader, was deeply shocked by this."
  • In the Sandy Duncan episode in the first season of The Muppet Show, Statler demonstrates his extreme age by not using the post-1959 name:
Waldorf: Statler, do you 'get' the banana sketch?
Statler: No, I get The New York Times and The Manchester Guardian.

[edit] Literary and media awards

The Guardian is the sponsor of two major literary awards: The Guardian First Book Award, established in 1999 as a successor to the Guardian Fiction Award which had run since 1965, and the Guardian Children's Fiction Prize, founded in 1967. In recent years it has also sponsored the Hay Festival in Hay-on-Wye. In addition, the annual Guardian Student Media Awards, founded 1999, recognise excellence in journalism and design of British university and college student newspapers, magazines and websites.

[edit] Editors

[edit] Notable regular contributors (past and present)

Columnists

Cartoonists

Satirists

[edit] The Newsroom archive

The Guardian and its sister newspaper The Observer also provide The Newsroom, a visitor centre in London. It contains their archives, including bound copies of old editions, a photographic library and other items such as diaries, letters and notebooks. This material may be consulted by members of the public. The Newsroom also mounts temporary exhibitions and runs an educational programme for schools. There is also an extensive Manchester Guardian archive at the University of Manchester's John Rylands Library and there is a collaboration programme between the two archives. The British Library also has a large archive of the Manchester Guardian, available in online, hard copy, microform, and CD-ROM in their British Library Newspapers collection.

[edit] Wikipedia - See also

[edit] External links


[edit] References

  1. ^ MORI, 2005-03-09. "Voting Intention by Newspaper Readership"
  2. ^ Tuesday's morning conference. The Guardian (2007-09-13). Retrieved on February 11, 2007.
  3. ^ Audit Bureau of Circulations Ltd
  4. ^ The Webby Awards, 2005. "9th Annual Webby Awards nominations and winners."
  5. ^ The 2006 Newspaper Awards. Retrieved on May 29, 2006.
  6. ^ Eppy Awards, 2000. "Winners."
  7. ^ Guardian Media Group plc 2006. "Guardian Media Group 2005/6 results."
  8. ^ Guardian Newspapers Ltd & Scott Trust, 2005. "Social, ethical and environmental audit, 2005".
  9. ^ Project Syndicate. Retrieved on April 4, 2006.
  10. ^ Daphna Baram (2003). Disenchantment: The Guardian and Israel. Politico. ISBN 1-84275-119-0. 
  11. ^ Jonathan Aitken, 1995. "The simple sword of truth." The Guardian.
  12. ^ Luke Harding and David Pallister, 1997 "He lied and lied and lied" The Guardian.
  13. ^ BBC News, 1999. "Aitken pleads guilty to perjury."
  14. ^ Clare Dyer, 06 December 2000. "A challenge to the crown: now is the time for change" The Guardian
  15. ^ Nicholas Watt, 07 December 2000. "Broad welcome for debate on monarchy" The Guardian
  16. ^ Julie Burchill, 29 November 2003. "Good bad and ugly." The Guardian.
  17. ^ "'The Guardian' at the crossroads", Jerusalem Post, September 27, 2006.
  18. ^ "News coverage", The Guardian, October 25, 2006.
  19. ^ CNS News, 25 October 2004."Left-Wing UK Paper Pulls Bush Assassination Column."
  20. ^ Charlie Brooker, 24 October 2004."Screen Burn, The Guide." The Guardian.
  21. ^ Dilpazier Aslam, 2005-07-13. "We rock the boat." The Guardian.
  22. ^ Media Guardian, 2005-07-22. "Background: the Guardian and Dilpazier Aslam." The Guardian.
  23. ^ Steve Busfield, 2005-07-22. "Dilpazier Aslam leaves Guardian." The Guardian.
  24. ^ Schoolnet n.d. "Manchester Guardian."
  25. ^ Claire Cozens, 2005-09-01. "New-look Guardian launches on September 12." The Guardian.
  26. ^ Claire Cozens, 2006-01-13. "Telegraph sales hit all-time low." The Guardian.
  27. ^ Steve Busfield. "Guardian wins design award", Guardian, February 21, 2006.
  28. ^ Martin Rowson 25 November 2005."Drawing Fire."The Guardian.
  29. ^ Emily Bell, 2005-10-08. "Editor's Week." The Guardian.
  30. ^ Jason Deans, 2005-12-08. "Gervais to host Radio 2 Christmas show." The Guardian.
  31. ^ Media Guardian "Comedy stars and radio DJs top the download charts." The Guardian.
  32. ^ John Plunkett, 2006-02-06. "[1]." The Guardian.
  33. ^ Hansard 374:54 2001-11-19.
  34. ^ Sarah Boseley, 2003-09-26 "The alternative professor." The Guardian.
  35. ^ Bad Science. The Guardian. Retrieved on February 10, 2007.
  36. ^ The sceptic. The Guardian. Retrieved on February 11, 2007.
  37. ^ BBC News, 2003-08-18. "Doctor slang is a dying art."