From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Republic of Korea (RoK)
(Unofficial: 널리 사람을 이롭게 하라(弘益人間)
"Broadly benefit humankind" also translated as "Devotion to the welfare of humanity")
(and largest city)
|-||Prime Minister||Han Duck-soo|
|-||Gojoseon||October 3, 2333 BCb|
|-||Liberation declared||March 1, 1919 (de jure)|
|-||Liberation||August 15, 1945|
|-||First Republic||August 15, 1948|
|-||United Nations Recognition||December 12, 1948|
|-||Total||99,646 km² (108th)
38,492 sq mi
|-||February 2007 estimate||49,024,737 (25th)|
|-||Density||480 /km² (18th)
1,274 /sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2006 estimate|
|-||Total||$1.180 trillion (11th)|
|-||Per capita||$24,200 (34th)|
|HDI (2004)||0.912 (high) (26th)|
|Currency||South Korean won (
|Time zone||Korea Standard Time (UTC+9)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+9)|
|a Establishment Motto of Korea. b Legendary.|
The Republic of Korea, commonly known as South Korea or the Korea Republic (Korean: 대한민국, IPA: [tɛ.ɦan.min.guk̚], ), is an East Asian country on the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. To the north, it is bordered by North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea), with which it was united until 1945. To the west, across the Yellow Sea, lies China and to the southeast, across the Korea Strait, lies Japan. Approximately one-half of South Korea's population lives in or near the capital Seoul, the second most populous metropolitan area in the world.
Korea traces its founding to 2333 BCE by the legendary Dangun. Since the establishment of the modern republic in 1948, South Korea struggled with the aftermath of Japanese occupation (1910-1945), the Korean War (1950-1953), and decades of authoritarian governments, undergoing five major constitutional changes. While the government officially embraced Western-style democracy from its founding, presidential elections suffered from rampant irregularities. It was not until 1987 that direct and fair presidential elections were held, largely prompted by popular demonstrations. South Korea has been a vibrant multi-party democracy for two decades.
The South Korean economy has advanced rapidly since the 1950s and is now the 11th largest (nominal value) economy in the world. South Korea is also one of the world's most technologically advanced and digitally-connected countries; it has the third most broadband Internet users among the OECD countries and is a global leader in electronics, digital displays, semiconductor devices, and mobile phones.
In the Korean language, South Korea is called Daehan Min-guk (Korean:대한민국 , Hanja:大韓民國, literally "Great Han People's Nation"), or Hanguk for short (한국, "Han Nation", usually referring to Korea as a whole) or Namhan (남한, "South Han", referring to South Korea specifically). North Koreans refer to the South as Namjosŏn (남조선, "South Chosŏn").
At the end of World War II, according to a proposal opposed by nearly all Koreans, American and Soviet troops occupied the southern and northern halves of Korea, respectively, dividing the peninsula at the 38th parallel. Despite promises of an independent and unified Korea in the 1943 Cairo Declaration, escalating Cold War antagonism between the United States and Soviet Union eventually led to the establishment of two separate governments: the communist North and the capitalist South. The Soviet Union promptly installed Kim Il-sung as the North Korean premier. While many Koreans wanted a national election to choose a leader for the whole country, the Communists refused to participate in elections by blocking entry into North Korea. Democratic elections were held in South Korea only, and Syngman Rhee was elected president. The Republic of Korea was the sole legitimate government of Korea recognized by the United Nations at that time.
On June 25, 1950, the North invaded the South at the instigation of Stalin, tacitly approved by Mao Zedong. Thus began a bloody war that caused the deaths of more than 4 million civilians and soldiers alike, now referred to as the Korean War. The United Nations intervened on behalf of South Korea when it became apparent that the superior Communist forces would easily take over the entire country. The Soviet Union and China backed North Korea, with China sending millions of troops across the border. The war eventually reached a stalemate. The 1953 armistice split the peninsula along the demilitarised zone at about the original demarcation line. No peace treaty was ever signed, however, and therefore the two countries are technically still at war.
In 1960, a student uprising led to the resignation of president Syngman Rhee, whose government had become autocratic and corrupt. Then followed a period of profound civil unrest and general political instability. General Park Chung-hee led a military coup (the "5.16 coup d'etat") against the weak and ineffectual government the following year. Park took over as president from 1961 until his assassination in 1979, overseeing rapid export-led economic growth as well as severe political repression.
The year following Park's assassination was marked by considerable political turmoil as the previously repressed opposition leaders all clamored to run for the presidential office. In 1980, General Chun Doo-hwan launched a coup d'etat against the transitional government of Choi Gyu Hwa, the former prime minister under Park and interim president, to assume the presidency. Chun's seizure of power triggered national protest asking for democrazation, particularly protests in Gwangju, South Cholla province. Chun sent in the special forces to suppress the city, and many students and civilian were killed brutally. The protesters armed under the name of Civil Army, but at least suppressed by military force. Gwangju Massacre. Chun stated his intent to serve only a single term from the outset and eventually allowed direct presidential elections in 1988 under pressure from widespread popular demonstrations. That year, Seoul hosted the 1988 Summer Olympics. South Korea's economic development was also largely due to the many large, family owned businesses within the country, which came to be known as Chaebols. Some of the most famous and richest Chaebols include Samsung, LG and Hyundai.
In 1996, South Korea became a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Despite a severe setback caused by the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the country was able to re-emerge as a major economic power. In 2004, South Korea joined the "trillion dollar club" of world economies and, today, its standard of living approximates some of the less affluent countries in Western Europe such as Portugal and Spain.
In June 2000, as a part of South Korean president Kim Dae Jung's Sunshine Policy of engagement, a North-South summit took place in North Korea's capital Pyongyang. That year, Kim won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work for democracy and human rights and efforts at reconciliation between the two Koreas. Since then, trade and investment between the two Koreas have increased dramatically as a result of regular contacts in relations and economic ties. South Korea is now one of the four Four Asian Tigers, along with Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore.
The government of South Korea is divided into three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative. The executive and legislative branches operate primarily at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch also carry out local functions. Local governments are semi-autonomous, and contain executive and legislative bodies of their own. The judicial branch operates at both the national and local levels.
The South Korean government's structure is determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea. This document has been revised several times since its first promulgation in 1948 (see History of South Korea). However, it has retained many broad characteristics; with the exception of the short-lived Second Republic of South Korea, the country has always had a presidential system with a relatively independent chief executive.
As with most stable three-branch systems, a careful system of checks and balances is in place. For instance, the judges of the Constitutional Court are partially appointed by the executive, and partially by the legislature. Likewise, when a resolution of impeachment is passed by the legislature, it is sent to the judiciary for a final decision.
 Geography and climate
South Korea occupies the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula, which extends some 680 miles (1,100 km) from the Asian mainland. This mountainous peninsula is flanked by the Yellow Sea to the west, and the East Sea to the east. Its southern tip lies on the Korea Strait and the East China Sea. The country's total area is 38,462.49 square miles or 99,617.38 square kilometres.
South Korea can be divided into four general regions: an eastern region of high mountain ranges and narrow coastal plains; a western region of broad coastal plains, river basins, and rolling hills; a southwestern region of mountains and valleys; and a southeastern region dominated by the broad basin of the Nakdong River.
About three thousand islands, mostly small and uninhabited, lie off the western and southern coasts. Jeju Island is located about 100 kilometres (about 60 mi) off the southern coast of South Korea. It is the country's largest island, with an area of 1,845 square kilometres (712 sq mi). Jeju is also the site of South Korea's highest point: Halla-san, an extinct volcano, reaches 1,950 metres (6,398 ft) above sea level. Other islands of South Korea include Ulleungdo and the disputed Dokdo.
The local climate is relatively temperate, with precipitation heavier in summer during a short rainy season called jangma, and winters that can be bitterly cold. In Seoul, the average January temperature range is -7°C to 1°C (19°F to 33°F), and the average July temperature range is 22°C to 29°C (71°F to 83°F). Winter temperatures are higher along the southern coast and considerably lower in the mountainous interior. Rainfall is concentrated in the summer months of June through September. The southern coast is subject to late summer typhoons that bring strong winds and heavy rains. The average annual precipitation varies from 1,370 millimetres (54 inches) in Seoul to 1,470 millimetres (58 inches) in Busan.
 Administrative divisions
|Special cities (Teukbyeolsi a)|
|Metropolitan cities (Gwangyeoksi a)|
|Special self-governing province (Teukbyeoljachi-do a)|
South Korea is a major international economic power. South Korea has the eleventh largest economy in the world (fourteenth largest by purchasing power parity), and the third largest in Asia, behind only Japan and China (fourth behind China, Japan, and India by purchasing power parity). Its largest trading partner and export market today is China. As one of the Four Asian Tigers, it achieved rapid economic growth through exports of manufactured goods.
In the 1950s, South Korea was one of the poorest countries in Asia. At the end of World War II, the country inherited a colonial economic system designed solely for Japan's needs. Much of the country's infrastructure was destroyed during the Korean War that followed in 1950-1953. After the war, South Korea became heavily dependent on U.S. aid.
Following the military coup led by General Park Chung-hee in 1962, South Korea embarked on a series of ambitious five-year plans for economic development. Emphasis shifted to foreign trade with the normalization of relations with Japan in 1965 and a resulted in a boom in trade and investment. Rapid expansion, first into light and then heavy industries, followed in the 1960s and 1970s. During this period, the South Korean economy grew at an average annual rate of 8.6%.
This phenomenal growth is often called the "Miracle on the Han River", the Han River being the main river that runs through the nation's capital and largest city, Seoul. In the 1980's and 1990's, growth continued as South Korea transformed itself from an exporter of mostly textiles and shoes into a major global producer of automobiles, electronics, shipbuilding, steel and later, high-technology products such as digital monitors, mobile phones, and semiconductors.
The South Korean model of encouraging the growth of large, internationally competitive companies through easy financing and tax incentives led to the dominance of the family-controlled conglomerates. These companies, known as chaebol, flourished under the support of the Park regime. Some such as Hyundai, Samsung, LG and SK Company became global corporations. In 2004, South Korea joined in the trillion dollar club of world economies.
Since the Asian financial crisis of 1997, however, the corporate landscape has changed considerably as a result of massive bankruptcies and government reforms. The crisis exposed longstanding weaknesses in South Korea's economy, including high debt-to-equity ratios, massive foreign borrowing, and an undisciplined financial sector. This led to two rounds of financial and industrial restructuring; once in 1997 and again following the collapse of Daewoo in 1999. Daewoo's collapse has been recorded as one of the largest bankruptcies in world history.  By 2003, just over one-half of the 30 largest chaebol from 1995 remained.
Between 2003 and 2005, economic growth has slowed to about 4% per year, an enviable figure in much of the rest of the world. A downturn in consumer spending, attributed to massive personal credit card debt, was offset by rapid export growth, primarily to China. In 2005, the government proposed labor reform legislation and a corporate pension scheme to help make the labor market more flexible, and new real estate policies to cool property speculation.
The South Korean economy is characterized by moderate inflation, low unemployment, an export surplus, and fairly equal distribution of income. South Korea continues to strive to maintain global competitiveness. South Korea has been opened to various employment opportunities in various industries. An example would be the influx of English teachers from native English-speaking countries seeking employment and travel in the country. Korean Online Job and Entertainment Portals are also an excellent way of determining employment opportunities in Korea.
Transportation in South Korea is provided by an extensive networks of railways, highways, bus routes, ferry services, and air routes that criss-cross the country.
All cities have intercity and intracity bus systems. Major cities also have express bus terminals.
Highways in South Korea are classified into freeways (expressways/motorways), national highways, and various classifications below the national level. Korea Highway Corporation operates the toll highways and service amenities en route. South Korea has about 3,000 kilometers of national highways. Most tourist and freight transportation use highways.
Korail provides frequent train service to all major South Korean cities. Two rail lines, Gyeongui and Donghae Bukbu Line, to North Korea are now being reconnected. The Korean high-speed railway system, KTX, provides frequent high-speed service along Gyeongbu and Honam Line.
Major cities have subway systems, including the popular Seoul Subway. Korail commuter lines are already linked with Seoul subway system and several commuter lines connected with Busan, Daegu subway system are under construction.
The main international airport is Incheon International Airport. South Korea has eight international airports and seven domestic airports. South Korea's major international air carriers are Korean Air and Asiana Airlines. About 71 international passenger and cargo airlines operate frequent flight services between Korea and all over the world.
Most South Koreans live in urban areas, due to rapid migration from the countryside during the country's rapid economic expansion in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. The capital city of Seoul is also the country's largest city and chief industrial center. It had 10.3 million inhabitants in 2006, making Seoul one of the most populated single cities in the world. Other major cities include Busan (3.65 million), Incheon (2.63 million), Daegu (2.53 million), Daejeon (1.46 million), Gwangju (1.41 million) and Ulsan (1.10 million).
The population has also been shaped by international migration. Following the division of the Korean peninsula after World War II, about four million people from North Korea crossed the border to South Korea. This trend of net entry reversed over the next forty years due to emigration, especially to the United States and Canada. However, South Korea's burgeoning economy and improved political climate in the early and mid-1990s slowed the high emigration rates typical of the previous decade. Many of those who left the country chose to return.
Although small, the percentage of non-Koreans in South Korea has risen rapidly in the early twenty-first century. Officially, as of April 2005, the total number of known foreign labourers in South Korea stood at 378,000, 52% of whom were in the country without authorization. This foreign workforce mainly comes from South Asian and Southeast Asian nations. There are also many workers from the former Soviet Union countries as well as some from Nigeria. In addition to these workers, there are about 11,000 expat English teachers and around 31,000 US military personnel.
As of 2005, approximately 22 million or 46.5% of the South Korean population express no religious preference. Of the remainder, 10.7 million are Buddhist, 8.6 million are Protestant, 5.1 million are Catholic, and less than half a million belong to various minor religions including Jeungsando and Wonbuddhism. The largest Christian church in South Korea, Yoido Full Gospel Church, is located in Seoul and has approximately 780,000 members (2003 estimate). Including Yoido Full Gospel, 11 of the world's 12 largest churches are located in Seoul (see Korean Christianity). South Korea is also the second largest missionary sending nation on earth, after the U.S.
South Korea shares its traditional culture with North Korea, but the two Koreas have developed distinct contemporary forms of culture since the peninsula was divided in 1945. The South Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism actively encourages the traditional arts, as well as modern forms, through funding and education programs.
Korean art and culture have absorbed influences from many countries; prior to the 19th century, these cultural infusions came primarily from China. Koreans adapted many Chinese art forms with innovation and skill, creating distinctively Korean forms. For many centuries, Korean forms of metalwork, sculpture, painting, and ceramics flourished throughout the Korean peninsula and were then passed on to neighboring countries like Japan. In modern times, Western and particularly the US influences have been strongest. In the aftermath of Japanese occupation all Japanese cultural exported were banned from Korea until 1999. Recently, any outside influences have been particularly controversial; the K-pop singer Hyori sparked a national controversy. In recent times, Korean pop culture has become popular in Asia and beyond, earning the name Hallyu or "Korean Wave." Korean pop culture has also made its way into Japan, with Korean singers like BoA, and television dramas like Daejanggeum and Winter Sonata finding success. Recent Korean films such as Oldboy and Oasis have also received international acclaim.
The contemporary culture of South Korea is heavily dominated by technology, including feature-rich cell phones and pervasive online gaming. South Korea today has the highest penetration of high-speed internet access to households in the world. Digital multimedia broadcasting now allows South Koreans to watch television on their cell phones.
South Korea's entertainment industry has grown substantially since the 1990s, producing Asia-wide successes in music, television, and film in a phenomenon known as the "Korean wave." However, the country still retains centuries-old customs and traditions, such as its unique cuisine and ancestor worship.
 Foreign relations
In its foreign relations, South Korea is primarily concerned with North Korea and the neighboring countries of China, Japan, and Russia, as well as its main ally, the United States. The US was the primary driver in the establishment and initial sustenance of the South Korean government before the Korean War of 1950-1953; however, since the 1990s the two nations have often been at odds with regard to their policies towards North Korea, and over the rise of anti-American sentiment  often expressed toward members of the U.S. military, sometimes violently.
South Korea and China established formal diplomatic relations on August 24, 1992, despite previous hostility dating back to the Korean War. South Korea and Japan signed the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea in 1965. However South Korea's relations with Japan continue to be turbulent due to a number of unsettled Korean-Japanese disputes, many of which stemmed from the period of Japanese occupation. During World War II, more than 100,000 Koreans civilians were conscripted into the Imperial Japanese Army as officers and soldiers. Longstanding issues such as Japanese war atrocities against Korean civilians, the visits by Japanese politicians to the Yasukuni Shrine honoring convicted war criminals, the re-writing of Japanese textbooks to overlook Japanese aggression during World War II, and the territorial disputes over the islands of Dokdo (known as "Takeshima" in Japanese) continue to trouble Korean-Japanese relations. In response to then-Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's repeated visits to the Yasukuni shrine, the President of South Korea Roh Moo-hyun suspended all summit talks between South Korea and Japan. 
Both North and South Korea continue to officially claim sovereignty over the entire peninsula. Despite longstanding animosity following the Korean War in 1950 (which has still not officially ended), the South and North have in recent times sought to establish a more conciliatory relationship. Events such as family reunifications and the Olympic Games, where the two Koreas entered the opening ceremonies together but still competed as separate teams, promised a gradual thaw in the North-South relationship (see Sunshine policy). However, the progress has been complicated by North Korean missile tests in 1993, 1998 and 2006.
In addition, South Korea maintains diplomatic relations with approximately 170 countries. The country has also been a member of the United Nations since 1991, when it joined at the same time as North Korea. On January 1, 2007, South Korean Foreign Minister Ban Ki-moon assumed the post of UN Secretary General. It has also developed links with ASEAN as both a member of "ASEAN Plus three" and the East Asia Summit (EAS).
The South Korean military is composed of the Republic of Korea Army (ROKA), Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN), Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF), and Republic of Korea Marine Corps (ROKMC), together with reserve forces. Many of these forces are concentrated near the border with North Korea. All South Korean males are constitutionally required to serve in the military, typically for a period of twenty-four months.
From time to time, South Korea has sent its troops overseas to assist American forces. South Korea dispatched 320,000 troops to fight alongside American soldiers in the Vietnam War. Most recently, South Korea sent 3,300 troops in the form of the Zaytun Division to assist with reconstruction efforts in northern Iraq, and is the largest contributor after the U.S. and Britain.
The United States has stationed a substantial contingent of troops in the ROK since the Korean War. The American Troops are stationed in bases, of which most are camps. They are considered camps not for their lack of buildings or support structure; but, in order to represent a lack of permanence for the ROK Government. (See List of United States Army installations in South Korea and USFK for more information on these military bases.)
Taekwondo, a popular martial art, originated in Korea. Taekwondo roughly translates to the way of punching and kicking, although it is sometimes translated as the way of the hands and feet. It became standard military training in South Korea, and in 1961 the rules were standardized and taekwondo became an official Olympic sport in 2000. Taekwondo in the military is an integral part in the Korean land forces. Other Korean martial arts include subak and taekkyeon.
Baseball was first introduced to Korea in 1905 by an American missionary named Phillip Gillette and has since become the most popular spectator sport in South Korea. The first South Korean professional sports league was the Korea Baseball Association, established in 1982. During the 2006 World Baseball Classic, South Korea reached the final four before losing to Japan. Prior to that final match, the South Korean team was the only undefeated team, and had beaten Japan twice and the United States once.
Other popular sports in South Korea include basketball, football, golf, tennis and ice hockey. Women's golf is especially strong, with 45 South Koreans playing on the world's leading women's tour, the U.S. LPGA Tour, including stars such as future Hall of Famer Se Ri Pak. Rising star Michelle Wie is also of Korean heritage, with both parents from South Korea. South Korea's Olympic teams have also traditionally performed strongly in Archery, Shooting, Badminton, Table Tennis, Fencing, Weightlifting, Boxing, Judo, Short track speed skating, Taekwondo, Kumdo, Wrestling as well as Handball and Field Hockey. Also the video game Starcraft is extremely popular in this country and although is not recognised as a sport in its own right, televised events with professional players in tournaments are popular.
In 1988, South Korea hosted the Summer Olympics in Seoul. There is an ongoing campaign to have a future Winter Olympics held in Pyeongchang County. South Korea has hosted the Asian Games in 1986 and 2002.
The 2002 FIFA World Cup was jointly hosted by South Korea and Japan, and South Korea became the first Asian team to reach the semi-finals. The Korea Republic national football team, also known as the "Taeguk Warriors", qualified for the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany for their sixth consecutive World Cup.
During the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin the South Korean short track team dominated their event, taking home six of the eight gold medals available as well as three silvers and one bronze. Skaters Ahn Hyun Soo and Jin Sun-Yu were the second and third persons in the Games to win three gold medals.
 International rankings
|International Monetary Fund/World Bank||Gross Domestic Product (nominal)||11 out of 183|
|CIA World Factbook||Gross Domestic Product (PPP)||11 out of 227|
|World Bank||Ease of Doing Business||23 out of 175|
|World Economic Forum||Global Competiveness||24 out of 125|
|Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal||Index of Economic Freedom||31 out of 157|
|The Economist||Worldwide quality-of-life index, 2005||30 out of 111|
|Reporters Without Borders||Worldwide press freedom index||31 out of 167|
|Transparency International||Corruption Perceptions Index||42 out of 163|
|United Nations Development Program||Human Development Index||26 out of 192|
- ^ https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ks.html#Econ
- ^ OECD Broadband statistics
- ^ South Korea. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
- ^ Korean President Kim-Dae Jung Receives the 2000 Nobel Peace Prize. UCLA Center for East Asian Studies. Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
- ^ The estimated area rises steadily from year to year, possibly due to land reclamation. 행정구역(구시군)별 국토적. Korea Statistical Information Service. Retrieved on 2006-03-27.
- ^ Trade Policy Outlook for Second-term Bush Administration
- ^ Working in South Korea. College Journal (Wall Street Journal). Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
- ^ North Korean History. Michigan State University (Windows on Asia). Retrieved on 2006-09-16.
- ^ Cumings (1997), 305-307; Nahm (1996), p. 448.
- ^ Yang (1999), p.594.
- ^ See Cumings 1997, chapter 6.
- ^ Korea, South. CIA Factbook. Retrieved on 2006-10-06.
- ^ KOIS (2003), pp. 238-239.
- ^ 18 out of 30, according to Country Studies: South Korea. The Economist (2003-04-10). Retrieved on 2006-04-06.
- ^ GDP - Rank order - Real Growth Rate. CIA Factbook. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
- ^ Anti-Speculation Measures. Hankooki Ilbo. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
- ^ Field Listing - Inflation Rate - (consumer prices). CIA Factbook. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
- ^ Field Listing - Unemployment Rate. CIA Factbook. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
- ^ Field Listing - Exports. CIA Factbook. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
- ^ WorknPlay Online Job Portal
- ^ South Korea. CIA Country Studies. Retrieved on 2006-04-22.
- ^ World City Populations. Retrieved on 2006-04-04.
- ^ Populations for all cities as of 2005, By city and province. NSO Database. Retrieved on 2006-04-22.
- ^ Migrants Want Flexible Employment System. Korea Times December 30, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-04-04.
- ^ US military figures as of 2005, from  (Excel file) Tim Kane Global U.S. Troop Deployment, 1950-2003
- ^ According to figures compiled by the South Korean National Statistical Office. 인구,가구/시도별 종교인구/시도별 종교인구 (2005년 인구총조사). NSO online KOSIS database. Retrieved on 2006-08-23. This should not be confused with other figures which report only the percentage of the religious population that are Buddhist, Christian, etc.
- ^ Korean Christian missionaries. Christianity Today. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
- ^ Associated Organizations. MCT Website. Retrieved on 2006-04-11. See also Mission and Goal. Korea Cultural Administration website. Retrieved on 2006-04-11.
- ^ Winter Sonata: Wiseman, Paul. Korea's romantic hero holds Japan in thrall. USA Today December 9. Retrieved on 2006-04-11. Daejanggeum:  BoA: 
- ^ However, according to the 2006 Face of the Web survey by Ipsos, Japan now leads Korea in internet connections per capita. Ipsos press release. Retrieved on 2006-04-03.
- ^ A Brief History of the US-Korea Relations Prior to 1945 
- ^ A Brief History of the US-Korea Relations Prior to 1945. 
- ^ KOIS (2003), p.632.
- Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's place in the sun. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31681-5.
- KOIS (Korea Overseas Information Service) (2003). Handbook of Korea, 11th ed.. Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-212-8.
- Nahm, Andrew C. (1996). Korea: A history of the Korean people (2nd ed.). Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-070-2.
- Yang, Sung Chul (1999). The North and South Korean political systems: A comparative analysis (rev. ed.). Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-105-9.
- Yonhap News Agency (2004). Korea Annual 2004. Seoul: Author. ISBN 89-7433-070-9.
- Dennis Hart (2003). From Tradition to Consumption: Constructing a Capitalist Culture in South Korea. Seoul: Author. ISBN 89-88095-44-8.
 External links
|Find more information on South Korea by searching Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Images and media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Korea.net: Gateway to Korea
- Korea National Statistical Office
- South Korea in Encyclopædia Britannica
- South Korea at the CIA World Factbook
- A Country Study: South Korea in the Library of Congress
- South Korea travel guide from Wikitravel
- South Korea at the Open Directory Project (suggest site)
- South Korea at the Yahoo! Directory
- Galbijim Wiki, including non-encyclopedic content for Korea
- Main cities of South Korea, satellite views and geographical coordinates
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