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The Sami flag
|Regions with significant populations|
|Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia|
|Sami languages, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, Russian|
|Laestadianism, Lutheranism, Orthodoxy, Shamanism|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps and Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. Their ancestral lands span across an area the size of Sweden in the Nordic countries. The Sami are one of the largest indigenous groups in Europe. Their languages are the Sami languages, which are classified as Finno-Ugric.
Many years of forced assimilation in the four countries makes it difficult to estimate the numbers of Sami. However, the population is estimated at about 85,000. The Norwegian state recognizes any Norwegian as Sami if they have one great-grandparent whose home language was Sami, but there is not, and has not been, any registration of the home language spoken by Norwegian people. Roughly half of all Sami live in Norway, but many live in Sweden too. Finland and Russia are also home to smaller groups located in the far north. The Sami in Russia were forced by the Soviet authorities to relocate to a collective called Lovozero/Lujávri, in the central part of the Kola Peninsula.
Traditionally, the Sami had a variety of livelihoods; fishing on the coast and in the inland, trapping animals for fur, sheep herding, etc. The best known livelihood is reindeer herding, but only a small percentage of the Sami have been mainly reindeer herders over the last centuries. Today, many Sami lead modern lives in the cities inside and outside the traditional Sami area, with modern jobs. Some 10% still practice reindeer herding, which is for traditional and cultural reasons allowed to Sami people only in some parts of Nordic countries.
- For more details on this topic, see Sápmi (area).
The Sami were previously known in other languages as Lap(p). This name was originally used in Sweden and Finland, and from there the word was exported to all major European languages (English: Lapps, German: Lappen, Russian, Ukrainian: Loparie, French: lapons). The widely accepted etymology is the Finnish word lape, which in this case means 'periphery'. Originally it meant any person living from the wilderness, not only the Sami people. In Scandinavian lapp also means a patch of cloth for mending and one explanation of the name suggests that the Sami wear patched clothes out of poverty. It is unknown how the word Lapp came into the Norse language, but it seems to have been introduced by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus to distinguish between Fish-Fennians (coastal tribes) and Lap-Fennians (forest tribes). It was popularized and became the standard terminology by the work of Johannes Schefferus "Acta Lapponica" (1673), but is also used earlier by Olaus Magnus in his '"Description of the Northern peoples" (1555). There is another suggestion that it originally meant wilds. An alternative interpretation made by Damião de Góis in 1540 derives Lapland from "the dumb and lazy land", because the land where no vegetables grow is lazy and does not speak.
Sami refer to themselves as Sámit (the Samis) or Sápmelaš (of Sami kin), the word Sámi being inflected into various grammatical forms. It has been proposed that Sami, Suomi (Finnish for Finland), and Häme (Finnish for Tavastia) are of the same origin, the source of which might be related to the Baltic word *^zeme meaning 'land'. The Sami institutions, notably the parliaments, the radio and TV stations, theatres etc. all use the term Sami, also when addressing outsiders in Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish or English. In a Sami context, the terms Lapp and Finn, especially if used by people considered to be well informed, are easily considered derogatory in Norway and Sweden.
Terminological issues in Finland are somewhat different. Finns living in Finnish Lapland generally call themselves lappilainen, whereas the similar word for the Sami people is lappalainen. It would be politically incorrect not to call Lapland Finns with that name and similarly incorrect to use the latter name about the Sami people. This might become troublesome for foreign visitors regarding how similar lives Finns and Sami people today live in Lapland. "Lappalainen" is also a common family name in Finland. Furthermore, using the term "Finn" about Finns is completely acceptable in Lapland.
The word "Laplander" is sometimes used to refer to the Sami people. Laplander however means anyone living in the area of Lapland, especially in the Finnish Lapland, and is not specifically a Sami term.
The Sami peoples have inhabited the northern regions of Scandinavia for thousands of years. Exactly how long is difficult to state with certainty.
Archeological evidence suggests that people along the southern shores of Lake Onega and around Lake Ladoga reached the River Utsjoki in Northern Finnish Lapland before 8100 BC . Other experts trace the Sami presence back to as recently as 2500 years ago. They are the oldest of the peoples represented in the Sami area, and are consequently considered the indigenous population of the area.
Historically, the Sami inhabited all of Northern Russia, Finland, and Eastern Karelia for a long time, though the Eastern Sami became assimilated into Finnish and Karelian populations after settlers from Häme, Savo, and Karelia migrated into the region. Placenames, e.g. Nuuksio on the south coast of Finland, remain as proof of former Sami settlement. However, Sami people increasingly mixed with Finnish and Scandinavian settlers, losing their culture and language.
Lapponia (1673), written by the rhetorician Johannes Schefferus, is the oldest source of detailed information on Sami culture. It was written due to "ill-natured" foreign propaganda (in particular from Germany) claiming that Sweden had won victories on the battlefield by means of 'Sami magic'. In attempts to correct the picture of Sami culture amongst the Europeans, Magnus de la Gardie started an early 'ethnological' research project to document Sami groups, conducted by Schefferus. The book was published in late 1673 and quickly translated to French, German, English, and other languages (though not to Swedish until 1956). However, an adapted and abridged version was quickly published in the Netherlands and Germany, where chapters on their difficult living conditions, topography, and the environment had been replaced by made-up stories of magic, sorcery, drums and heathenry. But there was also criticism against the ethnography, claiming Sami to be more warlike in character, rather than the image Schefferus presented.
Up to around 1500 the Sami were mainly fishermen and trappers, usually in a combination, leading a nomadic lifestyle decided by the migrations of the reindeer. Around 1500, due to excessive hunting, again provoked by the fact that the Sami had to pay taxes to Norway, Sweden and Russia, the number of reindeer started to decrease. Most Sami then settled along the fjords, on the coast and along the inland waterways to pursue a combination of cattle raising, trapping and fishing. A small minority of the Sami then started to tame the reindeer, becoming the well-known reindeer nomads, who, although often portrayed by outsiders as following the archetypical Sami lifestyle, only represent around 10% of the Sami people.
The Sami crossed the borders freely until 1826, when the Norwegian/Finnish/Russian border was closed. Sami were still free to cross the border between Sweden and Norway according to inherited rights laid down in the Lapp Codicil of 1751 until 1940, when the border was closed due to Germany's occupation of Norway. After WWII, they were not allowed to return. Their summer pasturages are today used by Sami originating in Kautokeino.
For long periods of time, the Sami lifestyle reigned supreme in the north because of its unique adaptation to the Arctic environment, enabling Sami culture to resist cultural influences from the South. Indeed, throughout the 18th century, as Norwegians of Northern Norway suffered from low fish prices and consequent depopulation, the Sami cultural element was strengthened, since the Sami were independent of supplies from Southern Norway.
However, in the 19th century Norwegian authorities put the Sami culture under pressure in order to make the Norwegian language and culture universal. A strong economical development of the north also took place, giving Norwegian culture and language status. On the Swedish and Finnish side, the authorities were much less militant in their efforts; however, strong economic development in the north led to a weakening of status and economy for the Sami.
The strongest pressure took place from around 1900 to 1940, when Norway invested considerable money and effort to wipe out Sami culture. Notably, anyone who wanted to buy or lease state lands for agriculture in Finnmark, had to prove knowledge of the Norwegian language. This also ultimately caused the dislocation in the 1920s, that strengthed the gap between local Sami groups, something still present today, and sometimes bears the character of an internal Sami ethnic conflict. Another factor was the heavy war destruction in northern Finland and northern Norway in 1944-45, destroying all existing houses and visible traces of Sami culture. After World War II the pressure was relaxed somewhat.
The controversy around the construction of the hydro-electric power station in Alta in 1979 brought Sami rights onto the political agenda. In August of 1986, the national anthem (Sámi soga lávlla) and flag (Sami flag) of the Sami people was created. In 1989, the first Sami parliament in Norway was elected. In 2005, the Finnmark Law was passed in the Norwegian parliament. This law gives the Sami parliament and the Finnmark Provincial council a joint responsibility of administering the land areas previously considered state property. These areas, 98% of the provincial area, that have always been used primarily by the Sami, now belong officially to the people of the province, Sami or Norwegian, and not the Norwegian state.
 Genetic history
Sami genetic history has been of great interest because of their large genetic distance to other European populations including their closest neighbours. It is mainly the north Sami and east Sami that have been investigated. There is considerable genetic variation between the different Sami groups but they all share a common ancestry. Female mtDNA especially has been investigated, but also Y chromosomes and classical autosomal markers. The research indicates that 95.6% of Saami mtDNA originated in the Iberia refugia while only 4.4% is of Siberian-Asiatic origin (Tambets 2004). A genetic link has been established between the Sami and the Berbers of North Africa going back 9000 years (Achilli 2005).
Sami Y chromosomes indicate that 29.8% originated in the Iberia refugia and 58.2% originated in Eastern Europe (Tambets 2004). The autosomal classic markers shows that the Sami have no close relatives in any population including their closest linguistic relatives but are in general more closely related to Europeans than people of other continents. The closest of the distant relatives are Finnish people, but this is probably due to more recent immigration of Finnish people into the Sami areas, and the assimilation of the Sami population into the mainstream population in today's Finland (Meinila 2001).
The Sami are no more closely related to the Siberian and Mongol populations than other European populations (Niskanen 2002), in contrast to the historically held view that the Sami are of Siberian-Asian origin. The genetic distances between the Sami and the rest of the world are due to founder effects and genetic drift resulting from their small and isolated population.
Duodji, the Sami handicraft, originates from the time when the Samis were self-supporting nomads, therefore should an object first and foremost serve a purpose
 Suppresion and revival
To make up for past suppression, the authorities of Norway, Sweden and Finland now make an effort to build up Sami cultural institutions and promote Sami culture and language. All recognize February 6 as Sami National Day, which was first recognized in 1993.
- There are daily news bulletins in Sami on national TV in all three countries. Children's programs in Sami are also frequently made. There is also radio in Sami.
- Two weekly newspapers in Sami, Min Aigi and Aššu are published, along with a few magazines.
- There is a Sami theatre, Beaivvaš, in Kautokeino on the Norwegian side, as well as in Kiruna on the Swedish side. Both tour the entire Sami area with drama written by Sami authors or international translations.
- A number of novels and poetry collections are published every year in Sami, occasionally also in other dialects than Northern Sami.
- Education with Sami as the first language is available in all three countries, also outside the Sami area.
- Sámi University College is located in Kautokeino. Sami language is studied in several universities in all countries, most notably the University of Tromsø, which considers Sami a mother tongue, not a foreign language.
- Numerous festivals throughout the Sami area celebrate different aspects of the Sami culture. The best known on the Norwegian side is Riddu Riđđu, a music festival in Olmmaivaggi/Manndalen. Among the most festive are the easter festivals taking place in Kautokeino and Karasjok prior to the springtime reindeer migration to the coast. These festivals combine traditional culture with modern phenomena such as snowmobile races.
Sápmi (or Lapland) is the name of the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sami people. Sápmi is located in Northern Europe and includes the northern parts of Fennoscandia. It spans over four countries: Finland, Norway, Russia and Sweden. A majority of the current population of this region has at least some Sami ancestry, yet most identify with their respective nation-state ethnicities.
There is no official geographic definition for the boundaries of Sápmi. However, usually the following counties and provinces are included:
- Lapland Province in Finland
- Finnmark county in Norway
- Nordland county in Norway
- Nord-Trøndelag county in Norway
- Troms county in Norway
- Murmansk oblast in Russia
- Jämtlands Län county in Sweden
- Norrbottens Län county in Sweden
- Västerbottens Län county in Sweden
 Important Sami towns
The following towns have a significant Sami population or host Sami institutions (Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish or Russian name in paranthesis):
- Guovdageaidnu (Kautokeino) is the perhaps the cultural capital of the Sami. About 90% of the population speak Sami. Several Sámi institution are located in Kautokeino including: Beaivváš Sámi Theatre, a Sámi High School and Reindeer Herding School, the Sámi University College, the Nordic Sámi research Institute, Sámi language board, the Resource Centre for the Rights of Indigenous People, and International Centre For Reindeer Husbandry. In addition, several Sami media are locaed in Kautokeino including the Sámi language Aššu newspaper. Kautokeino also hosts the Sámi Easter Festival.
- Kárášjohka (Karasjok). Seat of the Norwegian Sami Parlaminet, the Sami Radio media institution, and the Sapmi cultural park.
- Gáivuotna Kåfjord (Kåfjord) is an important center for the Sea-Sami culture. Hosts the Riddu Riđđu festival.
- Deatnu (Tana).
- Porsáŋgu (Porsanger).
- Unjárga (Nesseby).
- Ohcejohka (Utsjoki).
- Iänudâh or Eanodat (Enontekiö).
- Aanaar, Anár, or, Aanar (Inari), seat of the Finnish Sami Parliament
- Arjepluovve (Arjeplog).
- Jiellevárri or Váhčir (Gällivare)
- Johkamohki (Jokkmokk) holds a Sami market held the first weekend every February.
- Giron (Kiruna)
- Lujávri (Lovozero)
In the geographical area composing Lapland the Sami are a small minority. According to the Swedish Sami parliament the total Sami population is about 70 000. The Sami may be divided into smaller groups either based on the area where they are from, the Sami language (dialect) they speak, their occupation, or the country of residence.
 Division by geography
Sápmi is traditionally divided into:
- Eastern Sápmi (Kola peninsula, eastern Norway and Finland Sami regions)
- Northern Sápmi (most of Norway and Finland Sami area, northern part of Swedish Sami area)
- Luleå Sápmi (Luleå river valley area)
- Southern Sápmi (southern Sweden and Norway Sami area)
It should also be noted that many Sami now live outside Sápmi, in large cities such as Oslo in Norway.
 Division by language
A division based on language is (the numbers are the estimated number of speakers of each language):
- Southern Sami: 500
- Ume Sami: <20
- Pite Sami: <20
- Lule Sami 1 500
- Northern Sami: 15 000
- Inari Sami: 500
- Skolt Sami: 500
- Kildin Sami: 650
- Ter Sami: <20
Note that many Sami does not speak any of the Sami languages anymore, so the number of Samis leaving in each area is much higher. There are also two now extinct Sami languages Kemi Sami and Akkala Sami.
 Division by occupation
A division often used Northern Sami is based on occupation and the area of living. This division is also used in many historical texts:
- Reindeer Sami (in Northern Sami boazosapmelaš or badjeolmmoš). Previously nomadic Sami living as reindeer herders. Still used about reindeer herders, but most have a permanent residence in the Sami core areas. Some 10% of Samis practise reindeer herding, which is seen as a fundamental part of a Sami culture and in some parts of Nordic countries can only be practised by Samis.
- Sea Sami (in Northern Sami mearasapmelaš). These lived traditionally by combining fishing and small scale farming. Today often used about all Sami from the coast regardless of their occupation.
- Non-reindeer Sami not living by the sea (in Northern Sami dalon). Non-nomadic Sami. Is now probably the largest group of Sami.
Historical texts often divide the Sami into:Forest Sámi, Mountain Sámi, River Sámi, and Eastern Sámi. 
 Division by country
According to the Swedish Sami parliament the Sami population of Norway is 40 000. If all people who speak Sami or have a parent, grandparent, or great-grandparent who speaks or spoke Sami are included the number reaches 70 000. As of 2005 12 538 people were registered to vote in the election for the Sami parliament in Norway. The bulk of the Sami live in Finnmark and Northern Troms, but there are also Sami populations in Southern Troms, Nordland and Trøndelag. Due to recent migration it has also been claimed that Oslo is the municipality with the largest Sami population. The Sami are in a majority only in the municipalities of Guovdageaidnu-Kautokeino, Karasjohka-Karasjok, Porsanger, Deatnu-Tana and Unjargga-Nesseby in Finnmark, and Kåfjord in Northern Troms. This area is also know as the Sami core area. Sami and Norwegian are equal as administrative languages in this area.
According to the Swedish Sami parliament the Sami population of Sweden is about 20 000.
According to the Swedish Sami parliament the Sami population of Finland is about 6 000.
According to the 2002 census the Sami population of Russia was 1,991.
Since 1926 the number of Sami in Russia has gradually increased:
- census 1926: 1,720 (this number refers to the total Soviet Union)
- census 1939: 1,829
- census 1959: 1,760
- census 1970: 1,836
- census 1979: 1,775
- census 1989: 1,835
- census 2002: 1,991
 Border conflicts
There is a border, and some state that the rights (for reindeer herding and in some parts even for fishing and hunting) would include a larger part than of Sápmi. However, today's "border" originates from the 14-16th centuries when land-owning conflicts occurred. The establishment of more stable dwelling places and larger towns originates from the 16th century, and was performed for strategic defence and economic reasons, both by peoples from Sami groups themselves and more southern immigrants.
Owning land within the borders or being a member of a siidas (="corporation villages") gives rights. A different law enacted in Sweden in the mid-90s gave the right to anyone to fish and hunt in the region, something that was met with large scepticism and anger amongst the siidas.
Court proceedings have been common throughout history, and the aim from the Samic viewpoint is to reclaim territories used earlier in history. Due to a larger defeat in 1996, one siidas has introduced a sponsorship "Reindeer Godfather" concept to raise funds for further battles in courts. These "internal conflicts" are usually conflicts between non-Sami land owners and Reindeer owners.
The question whether the Fjeld's territory is owned by the governments or the Sami population is not answered.
 Sami national symbols
Although the Sami have considered themselves to be one people through history, the idea of, Sápmi, a Sami nation first gained acceptance among the Sami in the 1970's, and even later among the majority population. During the 1980's and 1990's a flag was created, a national song was written, and the date of national day was settled.
 Sami flag
The Sami flag was inaugurated during the Sami Conference in Åre, Sweden on August 15, 1986. It was the result of a competition for which many suggestions were entered. The winning design was submitted by the artist Astrid Båhl from Skibotn, Norway.
The motif was derived from the shaman's drum and the poem "Paiven parneh" ("Sons of the Sun") by the south Sami Anders Fjellner (1795-1876). Fjellner described the Sami as sons and daughters of the sun. The flag's circle represents the sun (red) and the moon (blue). The flag has the Sami colours, red, green, yellow and blue. Pantone colour formula is: red 485C, green 356C, yellow 116C and blue 286C.
 Sami National Day
The Sami National Day falls on February 6 as this date was when the first Sámi congress was held in 1917 in Trondheim, Norway. This congress was the first time that Norwegian and Swedish Sámi came together across their national borders to work together to find solutions for common problems. The resolution for celebrating on February 6th was passed in 1992, at the 15th Sámi congress in Helsinki.
 National song
Sámi soga lávlla ("Song of the Sami People", lit. "Song of the Sámi Family") was originally a poem written by Isak Saba that was published in the newspaper Sagai Muittalægje for the first time on April 1, 1906. In August 1986, it became the national anthem of the Sami. Arne Sørli set the poem to music, which was then approved at the 15th Sámi Conference in Helsinki in 1992. Sámi soga lávlla has been translated into all of the Sámi languages.
Sápmi demonstrates a distinct semi-national identity that transcends the borders between Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. However, there is no movement for complete autonomy. The Sami Parliaments, founded in Norway (1989), Sweden (1993), and Finland (1996) have very weak political influence, far from autonomy. They are formally public authorities, ruled by the Scandinavian governments, but have democratically elected parliamentarians. Their mission is to work for the Sami culture. The candidates' election promises often get in conflict with the institutions' submission under their governments. But as authorities, they have some influence over the government.
Russia is not actively taking part of this recognition of the minority of Samis.
Sweden has taken this active part for two reasons:
- to recognise the Sami minority as an indigenous people to distinguish it from other minorities;
- to raise the Sami minority influence which comes into conflict with the European majority democracy system, i.e., the group with the most votes wins.
Sami Parliaments are democratically elected and act as autonomous authorities. In each country, Sami inhabitants have a vote, in addition to the regular elections in each country, to elect representatives to their Sami Parliament if:
- s/he considers himself/herself to be culturally or ethnically Sami, and
- s/he speaks a Sami language, or
- s/he had or has a parent, or grandparent, that speaks or spoke a Sami language
The main organisations for Sami representation in Sweden are the "siidas". They cover northern and central Sweden.
 Traditional Sami religion
Sami religion shared some elements with the Norse mythology, possibly from early contacts with trading Vikings (or viceversa). Through a mainly French initiative, from J.P. Gaimard, Lars Levi Læstadius began researching the Sami mythology. His work resulted in four bands or fragments, since by his own admission they contained only a small percentage of what had existed. The fragments were termed Theory of Gods, Theory of Sacrifice, Theory of Prophecy, or short reports about rumorous Sami magic and Sami sagas. Generally, he filtered out the Norse influence and derived common elements between the South, North, and Eastern Sami groups. The mythology has common elements with other Circumpolar religions as well -- such as those in Siberia and North America.
 Missionary efforts
The term Sami religion usually refers to the pre-Christian religion, practiced until approximately the 18th century. Christianity was spread by Roman Catholic missionaries as early as the 13th century. Increased pressure came after the Lutheran reformation, and rune drums were burned or sent to museums abroad. In this period, many Sami practiced their traditional religion at home, while turning up in church on Sunday. Since the Sami were considered to possess witchcraft powers, they were often accused of sorcery during the 17th century.
In Norway, a major effort to convert the Sami was made around 1720, when the "Apostle of the Sami" - Thomas von Westen, burned drums and converted people by force.
The Swedish Sami vicar, Lars Levi Læstadius initiated a puritan, Lutheran movement among the Sami around 1840. This movement is still very dominant in Sami speaking areas. Sami on the Kola peninsula and in North-Eastern Finland, as well as a handful in Norway are members of the Russian Orthodox Church.
There is no single Sami language, but a group of ten distinct Sami languages. Six of these languages have their own written standards. The Sami languages are relatively closely related, but not mutually intelligible; for instance, speakers of Southern Sami cannot understand Northern Sami. Especially earlier these distinct languages were referred to as "dialects", but today this is considered misleading due to the deep differences between the varieties. Most Sami languages are spoken in several countries, because linguistic borders do not correspond to national borders.
The Sami languages belong to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family, and are thus related to Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian. Due to prolonged contact with neighboring Scandinavians, however, there are a large number of Germanic loanwords in Sami. The majority of the Sami now speak the majority languages of the countries they live in, i.e. Swedish, Russian, Finnish and Norwegian. Efforts are being made to further the use of Sami language among Sami and persons of Sami origin.
A characteristic feature of Sami musical tradition is the singing of joik. Joiks are traditionally sung a cappella, usually sung slowly and deep in the throat with apparent emotional content of sorrow or anger. Joiks can be dedicated to animals and birds in nature, to special people or special occasions, and they can be joyous, sad or melancholic.
Christian missionaries and priests regarded these as "songs of the Devil". In recent years, musical instruments frequently accompany joiks. The Sami singer Mari Boine introduced joiks to the world audience when she blended it with rhythmic music such as jazz and rock on several award-winning albums in the '80s and '90s. This has been heavily sampled in recent times by the likes of hip-hop musicians Xzibit and Vanilla Ice.
The Finnish folk metal band Sháman introduced what some call "yoik metal", drawing attention to Sámi music in the heavy metal scene. Their music incorporated Sámi elements such as yoik singing, Sami lyrics, and shamanic drum. The band added new members, and has since changed their name to Korpiklaani. Although they still incorporate "yoiking" in their music, their songs are now written in Finnish and English.
 See also
- Northern indigenous peoples of Russia
- The Germania by Tacitus
- Lars Levi Læstadius, scientist and preacher, who studied Sami culture
- Carl Lindhagen
- Inuit, indigenous Arctic peoples of North American
- ^ Article on the subject by the Finno-Ugrian Society.
- ^ Uncovering the secrets of the Sámi, a February 2006 Helsingin Sanomat article
- ^ Norwegian Sami parliament web page on registered voters
 External links
- We are the Sami. A lot of movies and fact sheets about the Sámi people.
- About Sami people. Information about Sápmi.
- BÁIKI: The International Sámi Journal. English source of information about Sámi. Also covers news of North American Sámi community events.
- Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse myths, Mundal
- Dablot prejjesne A traditional Sami boardgame.
- Germania by Tacitus (98 AD
- National Minorities of Finland, The Sámi, from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland
- Ohthere's Voyage (890 AD) original text with English translation
- The Origin and Deeds of the Goths by Jordanes (551 AD)
- Sami traditional music: Ande Somby
- Sami contemporary music: Vajas
- Sami contemporary music: Transjoik
- Sami contemporary music: Ulla Pirttijärvi
- Sami contemporary music: Frode Fjellheim
- The Sami of Norway from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Norway
- The Sámi from the FAQ for news:soc.culture.nordic
- Sámi Radio from the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation
- The Saami Culture, University of Texas
- The Coastal Sami in Sweden, Broadbent
- Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Europe, Sajantila 1995
- Saami Mitochondrial DNA Reveals Deep Maternal Lineage Clusters, Delghandi 1998
- The Origin of the Baltic-Finns from the Physical Anthropological Point of View, Niskanen 2002
- The Western and Eastern Roots of the Saami—the Story of Genetic “Outliers” Told by Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosomes, Tambets 2004
- Saami and Berbers—An Unexpected Mitochondrial DNA Link, Achilli 2005
- A recent genetic link between Sami and the Volga-Ural region of Russia, Ingman 2006