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This article is about the nation in Southeast Asia. For the town in the Netherlands, see Philippine (Netherlands).
Republika ng Pilipinas
Republic of the Philippines
Flag of the Philippines Coat of arms of the Philippines
Flag Coat of arms
Maka-Diyos, Makatao, Makakalikasan, at Makabansa
(English: "For God, People, Nature, and Country")
Lupang Hinirang ("Land of the Morning")
Location of the Philippines
Capital Manila
14°35′N, 121°0′E
Largest city Quezon City
Official languages Filipino and English*
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
 -  Vice President Noli de Castro
 -  Senate President Manuel Villar
 -  House Speaker Jose de Venecia, Jr.
 -  Chief Justice Reynato Puno
Independence from Spain and the United States 
 -  Declared June 12, 1898 
 -  Self-government March 24, 1934 
 -  Recognized July 4, 1946 
 -  Current constitution February 2, 1987 
 -  Total 300,000 km² (72nd)
115,831 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.6
 -  2006 estimate 85,236,913[1] (12th)
 -  2000 census 76,504,077 
 -  Density 276 /km² (42nd)
715 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $451 billion (25th)
 -  Per capita $4,923 (112nd)
GDP (nominal) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $98,731 billion (51st)
 -  Per capita $1,168 (120th)
Gini? (2000) 46.1 (high
HDI (2006) 0.763 (medium) (84th)
Currency Philippine peso (piso) (PHP)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
Internet TLD .ph
Calling code +63
* Cebuano, Ilokano, Hiligaynon, Bikol, Waray-Waray, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Kinaray-a, Maranao, Maguindanao, Tagalog, Tausug are the auxiliary official languages in their respective regions. Spanish and Arabic are promoted on an optional and voluntary basis.

The Philippines (Filipino: Pilipinas/Filipinas [2]), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas; RP), is an island nation located in Southeast Asia, with Manila as its capital. It comprises 7,107 islands called the Philippine Archipelago, with a total land area of approximately 300,000 square kilometers or 116,000 square miles, making it the 72nd largest country by area.

Modern day Filipinos are of Austronesian stock, although there is a minority of Filipinos with Chinese, Spanish, Mexican, American, Arab, and Indian ancestry.[3]

Through its rich history, Philippine culture has many affinities with the West, especially with Spain and Latin America due to three centuries of Spanish colonial rule. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion, and Filipino and English are the official languages.[4]



Archeological and paleontological theory suggests that Homo sapiens existed in Palawan about 50,000 BC. The Aetas are thought to have arrived in the area that is now the Philippines more than 30,000 years ago, perhaps via land bridges that connected the area to the Asian continent during an ice age.[5]

The ancestors of the vast majority of the Filipino people, the Austronesians from Taiwan, settled in northern Luzon around 2500 BC. They spread to the rest of the Philippines and later colonized most of Maritime Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific Islands. Arab, Chinese and Indian traders made contact with the Philippines during the course of the next thousand years until the arrival of the Europeans.

Sailing for the Spanish, the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and his crew were the first Europeans to arrive in the archipelago in 1521. Magellan was killed by indigenous warriors in Mactan Island while being involved with political conflicts with Lapu-Lapu. The conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first Spanish settlements in Cebu and paved the way for colonization. In 1571 he established Manila as the capital of the new Spanish colony.[6]

Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the inhabitants. In the next 333 years, the Spanish military fought off various local indigenous revolts and various external colonial challenges. Such challenges came from the British, Chinese, Dutch, French, Japanese, and Portuguese. The most significant loss for Spain was the temporary occupation of the capital, Manila, by the British during the Seven Years' War. The Philippines was ruled as a territory of New Spain from 1565 to 1821, before it was administered directly from Spain. The Manila Galleon which linked Manila to Acapulco, Mexico travelled once or twice a year, beginning in the late 16th century. The Philippines opened itself to world trade on September 6, 1834.

A propaganda movement, which included Philippine nationalist José Rizal, then a student studying in Spain, soon developed on the Spanish mainland. This was done in order to inform the government of the injustices of the administration in the Philippines as well as the abuses of the friars. In the 1880s and the 1890s, the propagandists clamored for political and social reforms, which included demands for greater representation in Spain. Unable to gain the reforms, Rizal returned to the country, and pushed for the reforms locally. Rizal was subsequently arrested, tried, and executed for treason on December 30, 1896. Earlier that year, the Katipunan, led by Andrés Bonifacio, already started a revolution, which was eventually continued by Emilio Aguinaldo, who established a revolutionary government, although the Spanish governor general Fernando Primo de Rivera proclaimed the revolution over in May 17, 1897.[7]

The Spanish-American War began in Cuba in 1898 and soon reached the Philippines when Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish squadron at Manila Bay. Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines on June 12, 1898, and was proclaimed head of state. As a result of its defeat in the War, Spain ceded the Philippines, together with Cuba (made an independent country, the US in charge of foreign affairs), Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States. By 1899, the Philippine-American War ensued between the United States and the Philippine revolutionaries, which continued the violence of the previous years. The US proclaimed the war ended when Aguinaldo was captured by American troops on March 23, 1901, but the struggle continued until 1913. The country's status as a colony changed when it became the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1935, which provided for more self-governance. Plans for increasing independence over the next decade were interrupted during World War II when Japan invaded and occupied the islands. After the Japanese were defeated in 1945, the Philippines achieved independence from the United States on July 4, 1946.[7]

Since 1946, the newly independent Philippine state has faced political instability with various rebel groups. The late 1960s and early 1970s saw economic development that was second in Asia, next to Japan. Ferdinand Marcos was, then, the elected president. Barred from seeking a third term, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972 and ruled the country by decree. Marcos extended both his power and tenure by force. His authoritarian rule became marred with unmitigated, pervasive corruption, cronyism and despotism.

Opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. was assassinated on August 21, 1983 upon returning from exile. In January 1986, Marcos allowed for a "snap" election, after large protests. The election was believed to be fraudulent, and resulted in a standoff between military mutineers and the military loyalists. Protesters supported the mutineers, and were accompanied by resignations of prominent cabinet officials. Corazon Aquino, the wife of Benigno Aquino, Jr., was the recognized winner of the snap election. She took over government, and called for a constitutional convention to draft a new constitution, after the 1986 EDSA Revolution. Marcos, his family and some of his allies fled to Hawaii.[7]

The return of democracy and government reforms after the events of 1986 was hampered by massive national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, a communist insurgency, and a Muslim separatist movement. The economy improved during the administration of Fidel V. Ramos, who was elected in 1992. However, the economic improvements were negated at the onset of the East Asian financial crisis in 1997. The 2001 EDSA Revolution led to the downfall of the following president, Joseph Estrada. The current administration of president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo has been hounded by allegations of corruption and election rigging. Due to these allegations the current administration has had to suppress several attempted coups, the most recent taking place in Manila during March of 2006.[7]

Politics and government

National symbols of the Philippines
Flag National Flag
Anthem Lupang Hinirang
Patriotic Song Pilipinas Kong Mahal, Bayan Ko
Gem South Sea pearls
Dance Cariñosa
Animal Carabao
Bird Philippine Eagle
Fish Milkfish (Bangus)
Flower Arabian Jasmine (Sampaguita)
Tree Angsana (Narra)
Leaf Fan palm (Anahaw)
Fruit Mango
Sport Sipa
House Bahay kubo
Costume Barong and Baro't saya
Hero José Rizal
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo wearing a baro't saya
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo wearing a baro't saya

The Philippines has a presidential-unitary form government, where the President functions as both head of state and head of government, and is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote to a six-year term, during which he appoints and presides over the cabinet.[7]

The bicameral Congress is composed of a Senate, serving as the upper house whose members are elected nationally to a six-year term, and a House of Representatives serving as the lower house whose members are elected to a three-year term and are elected from legislative districts and through sectoral representation. [7]

The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice as its presiding officer and 14 associate justices, all appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council. [7]

Attempts to amend the constitution to either a federal, unicameral or parliamentary form of government have repeatedly failed since the Ramos administration.

The Philippines is a founding and active member of the United Nations since its inception on October 24, 1945 and is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The Philippines is also a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS), an active player in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Latin Union, and a member of the Group of 24. The country is a major non-NATO ally of the U.S. but also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.[7]

The Philippines is involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands and Scarborough Shoal. It likewise claims the Malaysian state of Sabah, being once part of the Sultanate of Sulu. [8]

See also: Foreign relations of the Philippines, President of the Philippines, and Constitution of the Philippines
Further information: Armed Forces of the Philippines

Administrative divisions

Provinces and regions of the Philippines
Provinces and regions of the Philippines

The Philippines is divided into three geographical areas: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. It has 17 regions, 81 provinces,[9] 117 cities, 1,501 municipalities, and 41,982 barangays.[10]

Most government offices establish regional offices to serve the constituent provinces. The regions themselves do not possess a separate local government, with the exception of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[citation needed]

On July 24, 2006, the State of the Nation Address of President Arroyo announced the proposal to create five economic super regions to concentrate on the economic strengths in a specific area.[11]

Region Designation Government center
Ilocos Region Region I San Fernando City, La Union
Cagayan Valley Region Region II Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
Central Luzon Region Region III City of San Fernando, Pampanga
CALABARZON Region¹ ² Region IV-A Calamba City, Laguna
MIMARO Region¹ ² ³ Region IV-B Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro
Bicol Region Region V Legazpi City, Albay
Western Visayas Region³ Region VI Iloilo City
Central Visayas Region Region VII Cebu City
Eastern Visayas Region Region VIII Tacloban City, Leyte
Zamboanga Peninsula Region Region IX Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur
Northern Mindanao Region Region X Cagayan de Oro City
Davao Region Region XI Davao City
SOCCSKSARGEN Region¹ Region XII Koronadal City, South Cotabato
Caraga Region Region XIII Butuan City
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao ARMM Cotabato City
Cordillera Administrative Region CAR Baguio City
National Capital Region NCR Manila

¹ Names are capitalized because they are acronyms, containing the names of the constituent provinces or cities (see Acronyms in the Philippines).
² These regions formed the former Southern Tagalog region, or Region IV.
³ Palawan was moved from Region IV-B as known as MIMAROPA to Region VI. From November 2005, Region IV-B would be called MIMARO, decreased from five to four provinces and Region VI increased from six to seven provinces.


Geography of the Philippines
Geography of the Philippines
Mt. Apo, the highest peak in the Philippines, overlooks Davao City in Mindanao.
Mt. Apo, the highest peak in the Philippines, overlooks Davao City in Mindanao.

The Philippines constitutes an archipelago of 7,107 islands with a total land area of approximately 300,000 square kilometres (116,000 sq. mi). It lies between 116° 40' and 126° 34' E. longitude, and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N. latitude, and borders the Philippine Sea on the east, on the South China Sea the west, and the Celebes Sea on the south. The island of Borneo lies a few hundred kilometers southwest and Taiwan directly north. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are to the south, and Palau is to the east beyond the Philippine Sea.[7]

The islands are commonly divided into three island groups: Luzon (Regions I to V, NCR and CAR), Visayas (VI to VIII), and Mindanao (IX to XIII and ARMM). The busy port of Manila, on Luzon, is the national capital and second largest city after its suburb Quezon City.[7]

The local climate is hot, humid, and tropical. The average yearly temperature is around 26.5°C (79.7°F). There are three recognized seasons: Tag-init or Tag-araw (the hot season or summer from March to May), Tag-ulan (the rainy season from June to November), and Taglamig (the cold season from December to February). The southwest monsoon (May-October) is known as the "habagat" and the dry winds of the northeast monsoon (November-April) as the "amihan".[12] The country itself is undergoing desertification in place like Sorsogon, Baguio, Davao and the Sierra Madre mountain range.[citation needed]

Most of the mountainous islands used to be covered in tropical rainforest and are volcanic in origin. The highest point is Mount Apo on Mindanao at 2,954 metres (9,692 ft). There are many active volcanos such as Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano. The country also lies within the typhoon belt of the Western Pacific and about 19 typhoons strike per year.[citation needed]

Lying on the northwestern fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activities. Some 20 earthquakes are registered daily in the Philippines, though most are too weak to be felt. The last great earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake.[13]

The longest river is the Cagayan River of northern Luzon. The nearly circular Manila Bay, is connected to the Laguna de Bay by means of the Pasig River. Subic Bay, the Davao Gulf and the Moro Gulf are some of the important bays. Transversing the San Juanico Strait is the San Juanico Bridge, that connects the islands of Samar and Leyte.[14]


Makati City skyline
Makati City skyline

The Philippines is a developing country with an agricultural base, light industry, and service-sector economy. It has been listed in "Next Eleven" economies. The Philippines has one of the most vibrant business process outsourcing (BPO) industries in Asia. Numerous call centers and BPO firms have infused momentum into the Philippine market, generating thousands of jobs, including Fortune 500 companies.[15]

The resiliency of the Philippine economy is due to low foreign fund inflows and its agriculture-based economy allowed it to snap back from international crises as evidenced by a 3% growth in 1999 and 4% in 2000. By 2004, the Philippine economy catapulted to over 6% growth after the East Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo pledged to turn the country into a First World state by 2020.[16] In 2005, the Philippine peso was said to be Asia's best-performing currency.[17] In 2006, the Philippine economy expanded at a rate of 5.4%, higher than of the previous year. The government plans to accelerate the country's GDP by 7% in 2007. The government forecasts the economy to grow at 9% by 2009.[18]

Strategies for streamlining the economy include improvements of infrastructure, more efficient tax systems to bolster government revenues, furthering deregulation and privatization of the economy, and increasing trade integration within the region and across the world.[19][20]

San Miguel Avenue in Ortigas Center, Mandaluyong - Pasig City Boundary
San Miguel Avenue in Ortigas Center, Mandaluyong - Pasig City Boundary

On November 1, 2005, a newly expanded value added tax (E-VAT) law was instituted as a measure to bridle the rising foreign debt and to improve government services such as education, healthcare, social security, and transportation. As of 2006, The Philippines' economic prosperity also depends in large part on how well its two biggest trading partners' economies perform: the U.S. and Japan.[21]

Cebu City Business Park
Cebu City Business Park

Despite the growing economy, the Philippines will have to address several chronic problems in the future. Income inequality remains persistent; about 30 million people lived on less than $2 per day in 2005. China and India have emerged as major economic competitors, siphoning away investors who would otherwise have invested in the Philippines, particularly telecom companies. Regional development is also somewhat uneven, with the main island Luzon and Metro Manila gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions.[22]

In 2006, the Philippines experienced its lowest budget deficit in 8 years. President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo said that the nation is "making gains ahead of schedule." The Philippines' target in 2007 is to have a balanced budget. The 2006 budget deficit was at an all-time low of $1.27 billion.[23]

The Philippines is a significant source of migrant workers; as of 2004, the Philippine government has estimated that there are over 8 million Overseas Filipinos while independent estimates by various Philippine civic organizations estimate the number at 11 million.[24][25] Overseas Filipinos sent home a record $10.7 billion in 2005.[25] The Filipino diaspora is present in 190 nations worldwide.[26] In 2006, Overseas Filipinos remitted $12.8 billion back home and represents an almost 20% increase from the previous year. The government forecast for 2007 that at least $14 billion will be sent to the Philippines by Filipino workers.[27]

The Philippines is a member of the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Colombo Plan, and the G-77, among others[28]


Population growth of the Philippines.
Population growth of the Philippines.

The Philippines is the world's 12th most populous country, with a population of over 90 million as of 2006.[1] Roughly two-thirds reside on the island of Luzon. Manila, the capital, is the eleventh most populous metropolitan area in the world. The literacy rate was 92.5% in 2003,[29] and about equal for males and females.[30] Life expectancy is 69.91 years, with 72.28 years for females and 66.44 years for males. Population growth per year is about 1.92%, with 26.3 births per 1,000 people. In the 100 years since the 1903 Census, the population has grown by a factor of eleven. This represents a much faster rate of growth than other countries in the region (Indonesia has grown fivefold over the same period).

Ethnic groups

The people of the Philippines are called Filipinos. Most Filipinos are descended from the various Austronesian-speaking migrants who arrived in successive waves over a thousand years ago from Taiwan, genetically most closely related to the Ami tribe.[31] These ethnic Filipinos are divided into various ethnic groups, including but not limited to the Bisaya, the Tagalogs, the Ilocanos, the Moro, the Bicolanos, the Kapampangans, the Pangasinense, the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Ibanag, the Chabacano, the Bajau, the Ivatan, and the Palawan tribes. The Negritos or Aetas, who are considered as the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippines, currently number fewer than 30,000 people (0.03%).

Filipinos of Chinese descent, who had been settling in the Philippines since pre-colonization, currently forms the largest non-Austronesian ethnic group, claiming about 2% of the population[citation needed]. Other significant minorities, ranked according to population, include Spanish, Americans, other Europeans, Australia]]ns, Japanese, Koreans, and South Asia]]ns. There are also numerous Arabs and Indonesians in the country, especially in Mindanao. The Philippines has Asia's largest Eurasian, Amerasian, and American population.

Throughout the country's history, various ethnic groups as well as immigrants and colonizers have intermarried, producing Filipino mestizos. These mestizos can be any foreign ethnic group combined with native Austronesian stock. According to genetic studies, approximately 3.6% of the Filipino population have some Caucasian and Amerindian ancestry (mostly of Spanish or Mexican, American and other European descents), and about 10% have some Chinese ancestry[citation needed]


Map of the dominant Ethnolinguistic groups of the Philippines
Map of the dominant Ethnolinguistic groups of the Philippines

More than 170 languages and dialects are spoken in the country, almost all of them belonging to the Borneo-Philippines group of Malayo-Polynesian language branch of the Austronesian language family.

According to the 1987 Constitution, Filipino, and English are both the official languages. Many Filipinos understand, write and speak English, Filipino and their respective regional languages.

Filipino is the de facto standardized version of Tagalog, although it is distinct from it de jure. English is widely used as a lingua franca throughout the country, and is the sole national language, taught in schools throughout the Philippines since 1940. It is the primary language of public tertiary education.

English was imposed by Americans during the U.S. intervention and colonization of the archipelago. English is used in education, churches, religious affairs, print and broadcast media, and business, though the number of people who use it as a second language far outnumber those who speak it as a first language. Still, for highly technical subjects such as medicine, programming, calculus, English is the preferred medium for textbooks, communication, etc. Very few would prefer highly technical books in the vernacular. Movies and TV programs in English are not subtitled and are expected to be directly understood but many films and TV channels are now almost exclusively Tagalog in origin. English is the sole language of the higher law courts. Written and spoken competence in English among the overwhelming majority of poor Filipinos has been decreasing in recent years due to the abandonment of English medium free primary education.[32], The Philippines shares this characteristic with the Republic of India and both claim to have the second largest population of English speakers).[33]

The twelve major regional languages are the auxiliary official languages of their respective regions, each with over one million speakers: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Waray-Waray, Bikol, Kapampangan, Pangasinan. Kinaray-a, Maranao, Maguindanao and Tausug.

The Lan-nang-oe variant of Min Nan Chinese dialect is widely spoken by the country's Chinese minority.

The use of Spanish in the Philippines was the original official language of the country for more than three centuries, but was used mainly by the educated illustrados (including José Rizal) or self taught natives and the Spanish authorities. Spanish was the language of Philippine Revolution, and the 1899 Malolos Constitution proclaimed it as the official language. Following the American occupation of the Philippines, its use declined, especially after 1940. Currently, only a few Spanish Mestizo families speak it as their first language, although a few others use it together with Tagalog and English.

Both Spanish and Arabic are used as auxiliary languages in the Philippines. The use of Arabic is increasingly prevalent among Filipino Muslims and taught in madrasah (Muslim) schools.


The Philippines is one of only two majority Roman Catholic countries in Asia (the other being East Timor). About 90% of Filipinos are Christians, where 81% belong to the Roman Catholic Church, and the 9% composed of Protestant denominations, the Philippine Independent Church, and Iglesia ni Cristo.[34] While Christianity is a major force in the culture of the Filipinos, indigenous traditions and rituals still influence religious practice.

Approximately 5% of Filipinos are Muslims,[35] and are locally known as "Moros", having been dubbed this by the Spanish due to their sharing Islam with the Moors of North Africa. They primarily settle in parts of Mindanao, Palawan and the Sulu archipelago, but are now found in most urban areas of the country. Most lowland Muslim Filipinos practice normative Islam, although the practices of some Mindanao's hill tribe Muslims reflect a fusion with animism. There are also small populations of Buddhists, Jews and animists, which, along with other non-Christians and non-Muslims, collectively comprise 5% of the population[citation needed].


An Ifugao scuplture.
An Ifugao scuplture.

Filipino culture is largely a fusion of the indigenous traditions of the Philippines, Hispanic and American cultures. It has also been significantly influenced by Chinese and Indian cultures.

A Phlippine Kalesa.
A Phlippine Kalesa.

The Hispanic influences in Filipino culture are largely derived from the culture of Spain and Mexico as a result of over three centuries of Spanish colonial rule through Mexico City. These Hispanic influences are most evident in Roman Catholic Church religious festivals. Filipinos hold major festivities known as barrio fiestas to commemorate their patron saints. The most visible Hispanic legacy, is the prevalence of Spanish surnames among Filipinos. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial decree for the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of the Spanish naming system on the inhabitants of the Philippines. A Spanish surname in the Philippines does not denote Spanish ancestry. There are many other traces of Spanish culture in the country, such as names of countless streets, towns and provinces, which are also named in Spanish. Spanish architecture also made a major imprint in the Philippines. This can be seen especially in the country's churches, government buildings and universities. Many Hispanic style houses and buildings are being preserved, like the Spanish colonial town in Vigan City, for protection and conservation. Kalesa is a horse-driven carriage introduced by the Spaniards and was a major mode of transportation during the colonial times. It is still being used today. Filipino cuisine is also heavily influenced by Mexican and Spanish cuisine.

The Chinese influences in Filipino culture are most evident in Filipino cuisine. The prevalence of noodles, known locally as mami, are a testament to Chinese cuisine. Other Chinese influences include linguistic borrowings and the occasional Chinese derived surnames.[citation needed]

Jollibee restaurant in Dumaguete City.
Jollibee restaurant in Dumaguete City.

The use of English language in the Philippines is contemporaneous and is America's visible legacy. The most commonly played sport in the Philippines is basketball. There is also a wide "imitation" of American cultural trends, such as the love of fast-food; many street corners boast fast-food outlets. Aside from the American commercial giants such as McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Burger King, and KFC, local fast-food chains have also sprung up, including Goldilocks, Jollibee, Greenwich Pizza, and Chowking. Modern day Filipinos also listen to contemporary American music and watch American movies. However, Original Pilipino Music (also known as OPM) and Philippine movies are also widely appreciated.

Philippine Jeepney.
Philippine Jeepney.

Filipinos honor national heroes whose works and deeds contributed to the shaping of the Filipino nation. José Rizal is the most celebrated ilustrado, a Spanish-speaking reformist visionary whose writings contributed greatly in nurturing a sense of national identity and awareness. His novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo originally written in Spanish, are required readings for Filipino students, and provide vignettes of colonial life under the Spanish rule.

As with many cultures, music (which includes traditional music) and leisure activities are an important aspect of the Filipino society. Various sports are also enjoyed, including boxing, basketball, badminton and billiards being popular games in the country.

Traditional Filipino Martial Arts, such as Eskrima, had secretly been banned by the Spanish during the 300 year colonial period, but have been revived through an interest in learning pre-Hispanic culture. Hence, Filipino Martial Arts had in the 20th Century been made compulsory to learn for all members of the Filipino Armed Forces and the Police and many clubs exist.

See also


  1. ^ a b Philippine Census 2005 Population Projection
  2. ^,%20s.%202006.pdf
  3. ^ WOW Philippines Accessed September 30,2006
  4. ^ Constitition of the Republic of the Philippines, Article ZIV, Section 7 Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Accessed December 2, 2006.
  5. ^ History of the Philippines
  6. ^ Kurlansky, Mark. 1999. The Basque History of the World. Walker & Company, New York. ISBN 0-8027-1349-1, p. 64
  7. ^ a b c Philippines Phone Cards d e f g h i j About the Philippines Gov.Ph.Accessed September 15,2006
  8. ^ Philippines' Claim to Sabah [1]
  9. ^ Shariff Kabunsuan was created out of Maguindanao after it was approved by the people in a plebescite; Dinagat Island was also carved out from Surigao del Norte.
  10. ^ General Information of the Philippines Gov.Ph. Accessed September 30, 2006
  11. ^ State of the Nation Address of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo during the 3rd Regular Session of the 13th Congress of the Republic of the Philippines Gov.Ph. Accessed September 15, 2006
  12. ^ Climate of the Philippines [2]. Accessed September 30, 2006
  13. ^ The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake [3]. Accessed October 3,2006
  14. ^ Leyte is Famous For... [4]. Accessed September 30,2006
  15. ^ As India gets too costly, BPOs turn to Philippines [5]. Accessed October 2, 2006
  16. ^ Philippines now "Second World" [6]. Accessed September 30,2006
  17. ^ Philippines CIA World Factbook. Accessed August 23, 2006
  18. ^ Philippines Aims to Boost Growth by 2009[] Accessed February 22, 2007
  19. ^ Large Swiss Firm offers to invest in Philippines [7]. Accessed January 27,2007
  20. ^ RP ready for Global Trade [8]. Accessed February 17,2007
  21. ^ Economy: Philippines' Exports and Imports Partners [9]
  22. ^ Beyond Imperial Manila [] Accessed July 25, 2006
  23. ^ President sees balanced budget by the end of the year [10]. Accessed February 2, 2007
  24. ^ Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos [11].Accessed September 29,2006
  25. ^ a b Trouble in Paradise [12].Accessed September 30,2006
  26. ^ [13] [14]. Accessed September 30,2006
  27. ^ Filipino workers sent home $12.8 billion in '06 [] Accessed February 17, 2007
  28. ^ International Organization Participation [15]
  29. ^ United Nations Human Development Report 2005, p.259
  30. ^ CIA World Factbook - Updated July 20 2006
  31. ^ Capelli et al, A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania, Table 1
  32. ^ [16]
  33. ^ [17]
  34. ^ PHILIPPINES: ADDITIONAL THREE PERSONS PER MINUTE National Statistics Office Accessed November 27, 2006
  35. ^

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