New York City

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New York City
Skyline of New York City
Official flag of New York City
Official seal of New York City
Nickname: "Big Apple", "Gotham", "NYC", "City That Never Sleeps", "The Concrete Jungle", "The City So Nice They Named It Twice""
Location in the state of New York
Location in the state of New York
Coordinates: 40°43′ N 74°0′ W
Country United States
State New York
Boroughs The Bronx
Staten Island
Settled 1625
 - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R)
 - City  468.9 sq mi (1,214.4 km²)
 - Land  303.3 sq mi (785.6 km²)
 - Water  165.6 sq mi (428.8 km²)
 - Urban  3,352.6 sq mi (8,683.2 km²)
 - Metro  6,720 sq mi (17,405 km²)
Elevation  33 ft (10 m)
Population (2005)
 - City 8,143,198
 - Density 26,720/sq mi (10,316/km²)
 - Urban 17,984,000
 - Metro 17,249,802
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)

New York City (officially the City of New York) is a city in the state of New York and is the most populous city in the United States of America. Its business, finance and trading organizations are significant players in the nation's economy and in the world's.[1] The city is one of the world's most important cultural centers with hundreds of museums, galleries, and performance venues. Home of the United Nations, the city is also one of the world's major venues for international diplomacy.

The city comprises five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. With 8.2 million residents and a land area of 321 square miles (830 km²), New York City has the highest population density of any major city in North America.[2][3] The city's metropolitan area, with a population of 18.7 million, ranks among the largest urban areas in the world.[4]

New York City has been a dominant global financial center since World War II. It is also the birthplace of many American cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art, abstract expressionism in painting, and hip hop in music.[5] The city's cultural vitality has been fueled by immigration since its founding by Dutch colonists in 1625. In 2005, nearly 170 languages were spoken in the city and 36% of its population was foreign born.[6][7]


[edit] History

The region was inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans at the time of its European discovery by an Italian, Giovanni da Verrazzano.[8] European settlement began with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement, later called "New Amsterdam," on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1614. Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie Native Americans in 1626 (legend, now disproved, says that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads).[9] In 1664, the British conquered the city and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany.

Lower Manhattan in 1660, when it was part of New Amsterdam.
Lower Manhattan in 1660, when it was part of New Amsterdam.

Under British rule New York grew in importance as a trading port. The city emerged as the theater for a series of major battles known as the New York Campaign during the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress met in New York City and in 1789 the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated at Federal Hall on Wall Street. New York City was the capital of the United States until 1790.

During the 19th century, the city was transformed by immigration, a visionary development proposal called the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan, and the opening in 1819 of the Erie Canal, which connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the North American interior. By 1835, New York City had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States. Local politics fell under the domination of Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish immigrants. Public-minded members of the old merchant aristocracy pressed for Central Park, which became the first landscaped park in an American city in 1857.

Construction of the Empire State Building, 1930.
Construction of the Empire State Building, 1930.

Anger at military conscription during the American Civil War (1861–1865) led to the Draft Riots of 1863, one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history. In 1898 the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then an independent city), Manhattan and municipalities in the other boroughs. The opening of the New York City Subway in 1904 helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication. In 1911 the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and led to important advancements in safety standards, building codes, and improvements at the city's fire department.

In the 1920s New York City was a destination for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South. By 1916, New York City was home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance flourished, part of a larger boom time in the Prohibition era that saw construction of dueling skyscrapers in the skyline. New York City became the most populous city in the world in 1925, overtaking London, which had reigned for a century. The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello LaGuardia and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.

Returning World War II veterans and immigrants from Europe created a postwar economic boom and the development of huge housing tracts in eastern Queens. New York emerged from the war unscathed and the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's ascendance as the world's dominant economic power, the United Nations headquarters (built in 1952) emphasizing New York's political influence, and the rise of Abstract Expressionism in the city precipitating New York's displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.[10] Yet like many large American cities New York suffered a decline in manufacturing and rising crime rates, race riots, and white flight in the 1960s. By the 1970s the city had gained a reputation as a crime-ridden relic of history.

New York's social and economic upheavals abated in the 1980s as a resurgence in the critical financial industry improved the city's fiscal health. By the 1990s racial tensions had calmed, crime rates dropped dramatically, and waves of new immigrants arrived from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city's economy and New York's population reached an all-time high in the 2000 census.

The city was one of the sites of the September 11, 2001 attacks, when nearly 3,000 people were killed in the destruction of the World Trade Center. It was the worst terrorist attack ever to occur in the United States. The Freedom Tower is to be built on the site and is scheduled for completion in 2012.

[edit] Geography

Satellite image showing most of the five boroughs, portions of eastern New Jersey, and the main waterways around New York harbor.
Satellite image showing most of the five boroughs, portions of eastern New Jersey, and the main waterways around New York harbor.

New York City is located on the coast of the Northeastern United States at the mouth of the Hudson River in southeastern New York state. The city's geography is characterized by its coastal position at the meeting of the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean in a naturally sheltered harbor. This position helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. Much of New York is built on the three islands of Manhattan, Staten Island, and western Long Island, making land scarce and encouraging a high population density.

The Hudson River flows from the Hudson Valley into New York Bay, becoming a tidal estuary that separates the city from New Jersey. The East River, actually a tidal strait, flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates Manhattan from the Bronx.

The city's land has been altered considerably by human intervention, with substantial land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times. Reclamation is most notable in Lower Manhattan with modern developments like Battery Park City. Much of the natural variations in topography have been evened out, particularly in Manhattan.[11]

The city's land area is 321 mi² (831.4 km²).[2] The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which at 409.8 ft (124.9 m) above sea level is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine. The summit of the ridge is largely covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.

See also: Geography of New York Harbor

[edit] Boroughs

The five boroughs: 1: Manhattan, 2: Brooklyn, 3: Queens, 4: Bronx, 5: Staten Island
The five boroughs: 1: Manhattan, 2: Brooklyn, 3: Queens, 4: Bronx, 5: Staten Island

New York City comprises five boroughs, an unusual form of government used to administer the five constituent counties that make up the city. Throughout the boroughs there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods, many with a definable history and character all their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States.

  • The Bronx (pop. 1,364,566)[3] is New York City's northernmost borough. It is the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture,[12] the site of Yankee Stadium and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City.[13] Except for a small piece of Manhattan known as Marble Hill, the Bronx is the only section of the city that is part of the United States mainland.
  • Brooklyn (pop. 2,511,408)[3] is the city's most populous borough and was an independent city until 1898. Brooklyn is known for its cultural diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods and a unique architectural heritage. The borough also features a long beachfront and Coney Island, famous as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country.
  • Manhattan (pop. 1,606,275)[3] is the most densely populated borough and home to most of the city's skyscrapers. The borough contains the major business centers of the city and many cultural attractions. Manhattan is loosely divided into downtown, midtown, and uptown regions.
  • Queens (pop. 2,256,576)[3] is geographically the largest borough and the most ethnically diverse county in the United States.[14] Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough today is mainly residential and middle class. It is the only large county in the United States where the median income among black households, about $52,000 a year, has surpassed that of whites.[15] Queens is the site of Shea Stadium, the home of the New York Mets, and annually hosts the US Tennis Open.

[edit] Climate

Coney Island Beach, in Brooklyn
Coney Island Beach, in Brooklyn

Although located at about the same latitude as the southern Italian city of Naples, New York has a humid continental climate (Köppen classification Dfa) resulting from prevailing wind patterns that bring cool air from the interior of the North American continent.[16] New York winters are typically cold with moderate snowfall. The city's coastal position keeps temperatures relatively warmer than inland regions. It has a frost-free period lasting an average of 220 days between seasonal freezes.[16] April, May, and November are typically the months with greatest precipitation. Spring and Fall in New York City are mild, while summer is very warm and humid, with temperatures of 90°F (32°C) or higher recorded from 18 to 25 days on average during the season.[16] The city's longterm climate patterns are affected by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, a 70-year-long warming and cooling cycle in the Atlantic that influences the frequency and severity of hurricanes and coastal storms in the region.[17]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg high °F (°C) 38
Avg low temperature °F (°C) 25
Rainfall in. (mm) 3.4
Source: Weatherbase

[edit] Environment

Environmental issues in the city are chiefly concerned with managing its extraordinary population density, which is a factor in making New York among the most energy efficient and least automobile-dependent cities in the United States but also concentrates pollution. Mass transit use is the highest in the nation and gasoline consumption in the city is at the rate the national average was in the 1920s.[18] New York City, however, has some of the dirtiest air in the United States. Pollution varies greatly from borough to borough. Residents of Manhattan face the highest risk in the country of developing cancer from chemicals in the air.[19]

In recent years the city has focused on reducing its environmental impact. The city government is required to purchase only the most energy-efficient equipment for use in city offices and public housing.[20] New York has the largest clean air diesel-hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet in the country, and some of the first hybrid taxis.[21] The city is also a leader in energy-efficient "green" office buildings, such as Hearst Tower and 7 World Trade Center.[22] The average New Yorker consumes less than half the electricity used by a resident of San Francisco and nearly one-quarter the electricity consumed by a resident of Dallas.[23] Although New York City is more populous than all but eleven states, if it were granted statehood it would rank fifty first in per-capita energy use.[24]

The city is supplied with water by the vast Catskill Mountains watershed, one of the largest protected wilderness areas in the United States. As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration process, city drinking water does not require purification by water treatment plants.[25][26]

[edit] Culture

The Metropolitan Museum of Art is one of the largest museums in the world.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art is one of the largest museums in the world.

The writer Tom Wolfe said of New York that "Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather." Many major American cultural movements began in the city. The Harlem Renaissance established the African-American literary canon in the United States. The city was the epicenter of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. The city's punk rock scene was influential in the 1970s and 1980s, and the city has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature. Prominent indie rock bands coming out of New York in recent years include The Strokes, The Mooney Suzuki and Interpol.

The city has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes.[27] The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts.[27]

Wealthy industrialists in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that became internationally established. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theatre productions, and in the 1880s New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began showcasing a new stage form that came to be known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, these productions used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. Today these productions are a mainstay of the New York theatre scene. The city's 39 largest theatres (with more than 500 seats) are collectively known as "Broadway," after the major thoroughfare that crosses the Times Square theatre district.

The Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, which includes Jazz at Lincoln Center, the Metropolitan Opera, the New York City Opera, the New York Philharmonic and the New York City Ballet, is the largest performing arts center in the United States. Summerstage presents performances of free plays and music in Central Park and 1,200 free concerts, dance, and theater events across all five boroughs in the summer months.

See also: Broadway theatre and Music of New York City

[edit] Architecture

A rendering of the rebuilt World Trade Center, now under construction.
A rendering of the rebuilt World Trade Center, now under construction.

The building form most closely associated with New York City is the skyscraper, a pioneering urban form that saw city building shift from the low-scale European tradition to the vertical rise of business districts. Surrounded mostly by water, New York's residential density and high real estate values in commercial districts saw the city amass the largest collection of individual, free-standing office and residential towers in the world.[28]

New York actually has three separately recognizable skylines: Midtown Manhattan, Lower Manhattan, and Downtown Brooklyn. The city has architecturally important buildings in a variety of styles, including French Second Empire (the Kings County Savings Bank Building), gothic revival (the Woolworth Building), Art Deco (the Empire State Building and Chrysler Building), international style (the Seagram Building and Lever House), and post-modern (the AT&T Building). The Condé Nast Building is an important example of green design in American skyscrapers.[22]

The historic residential parts of the city have a distinctive character defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and apartment buildings that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. Unlike Paris, which for centuries was built from its own limestone bedrock, New York has always drawn its building stone from a far-flung network of quarries and its stone buildings have a variety of textures and hues.[29]

[edit] Media

New York's use of mass transit gives the city a large newspaper readership base.
New York's use of mass transit gives the city a large newspaper readership base.[30]

New York is a global center for the television, advertising, music, newspaper and book publishing industries and is also the largest media market in the United States. Some of the city's media conglomerates include Time Warner, the News Corporation, the Hearst Corporation, and Viacom. Six of the world's top ten global advertising agencies are headquartered in New York. Three of the "Big Four" record labels are also based in the city. One-third of all American independent films are produced in New York.[31] More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city.[31] The book-publishing industry employs about 25,000 people.[32]

Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States are New York papers, The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include The New York Daily News and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton. The city also has a major ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages.[33] El Diario La Prensa is New York's largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation. The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African-American newspaper.

The television industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The four major American broadcast networks, ABC, CBS, FOX and NBC, are all headquartered in New York. Many cable channels are based in the city as well, including MTV, BET, Fox News, HBO and Comedy Central. In 2005 there were more than 100 television shows taped in New York City.[34]

New York is also a major center for non-commercial media. Public access television originated in the city in 1968. WNET is the city's major public television station and a primary provider of national PBS programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.[35] The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYCTV, that produces several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods, as well as city government.

[edit] Tourism

The farmer's market at Union Square.
The farmer's market at Union Square.

40 million foreign and American tourists visit New York City each year.[36] Major destinations include the Empire State Building, Ellis Island, Broadway theatre productions, scores of museums such as the El Museo del Barrio, Washington Square Park, the Bronx Zoo and New York Botanical Garden, luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues, and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village, the Tribeca Film Festival, and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. Many of the city's ethnic enclaves, such as Jackson Heights, Flushing, and Brighton Beach are major shopping destinations for first and second generation Americans up and down the East Coast.

New York City has 28,000 acres (113 km²) of parkland and 14 miles (22 km) of public beaches. Manhattan's Central Park, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, is the most visited city park in the United States.[37] Prospect Park in Brooklyn, also designed by Olmsted and Vaux, has a 90 acre (36 Hectare) meadow. Flushing Meadows Park in Queens, the city's third largest, was the setting for the 1939 World's Fair and 1964 World's Fair.

New York's food culture, influenced by the city's immigrants and large number of dining patrons, is diverse. Jewish and Italian immigrants made the city famous for bagels and New York style pizza. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafels and kebabs standbys of contemporary New York street food.[38] The city is also home to many of the finest haute cuisine restaurants in the United States.[39]

[edit] Economy

Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the United States.Full panoramic photo
Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the United States.
Full panoramic photo

New York City is a global hub of international business and commerce and is one of four "command centers" for the world economy (along with London, Hong Kong, and Tokyo).[40] The New York metropolitan area had an estimated gross metropolitan product of $952.6 billion in 2005, the largest regional economy in the United States.[1] The city's economy accounts for the majority of the economic activity in the states of New York and New Jersey.[1]

The city is a major center for finance, insurance, real estate, media and the arts in the United States. Other important sectors include the city's television and film industry, second largest in the country after Hollywood; medical research and technology; non-profit institutions and universities; and fashion. Real estate is a major force in the city's economy. The total value of all New York City property was $802.4 billion in 2006.[41] The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at $1.1 billion in 2006.[41]

The city's stock exchanges are among the most important in the world. The New York Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ are the world's first and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured by average daily trading volume and overall market capitalization.[42] Many major corporations have headquarters in New York; it has more Fortune 500 companies than any other city.[43] New York is also unique among American cities for its large number of foreign corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company.[44]

Creative industries such as new media, advertising, design and architecture account for a growing share of employment. High-tech industries like bioscience, software development, game design, and Internet services are also growing; because of its position at the terminus of the transatlantic fiber optic trunk line New York City is the leading Internet gateway in the United States.[45]

Manufacturing accounts for a large but declining share of employment. Garments, chemicals, metal products, processed foods, and furniture are some of the principal products.[46] The food-processing industry is the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city.[47] Food making is a $5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents, many of them immigrants who speak little English. Chocolate is New York City's leading specialty-food export, with $234 million worth of exports each year.[47]

[edit] Demographics

New York City Compared
2000 Census NY City NY State U.S.
Total population 8,143,197 18,976,457 281,421,906
Population, percent change, 1990 to 2000 +9.4% +5.5% +13.1%
Population density 26,403/mi² 402/mi² 80/mi²
Median household income (1999) $38,293 $43,393 $41,994
Bachelor's degree or higher 27% 27% 29%
Foreign born 36% 20% 11%
White (non-Hispanic) 37% 62% 67%
Black 28% 16% 12%
Hispanic (any race) 27% 15% 11%
Asian 10% 6% 4%

New York is the largest city in the United States, with a population more than double the next largest city, Los Angeles. The estimated 2005 population of New York City is 8,213,839 (up from 7.3 million in 1990).[3] This amounts to about 40% of New York State's population and a similar percentage of the metropolitan regional population. Over the last decade the city has been growing rapidly. Demographers estimate New York's population will reach between 9.2 and 9.5 million by 2030.[48]

New York's two key demographic features are its density and diversity. The city has an extremely high population density of 26,403 people per square mile (10,194/km²), about 10,000 more people per square mile than the next densest large American city, San Francisco.[49] Manhattan's population density is 66,940 people per square mile (25,846/km²).[50]

The West Indian Labor Day Parade is one of the many carnivals celebrating New York's ethnic communities.
The West Indian Labor Day Parade is one of the many carnivals celebrating New York's ethnic communities.

New York City is exceptionally diverse. Throughout its history the city has been a major point of entry for immigrants; the term "melting pot" was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. 36% of the city's population is foreign-born.[7] Among American cities, this proportion is higher only in Los Angeles and Miami.[50] While the immigrant communities in those cities are dominated by a few nationalities, in New York no single country or region of origin dominates. The ten largest countries of origin are the Dominican Republic, China, Jamaica, Guyana, Mexico, Ecuador, Haiti, Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia and Russia.[51] About 170 languages are spoken in the city.[6]

The New York City metropolitan area is home to the largest Jewish community outside Israel.[52] It is also home to nearly a quarter of the nation's South Asians,[53] and the largest African American community of any city in the country. Another historically significant ethnic group are Italians, who emigrated to the city in large numbers in the early twentieth century. The Irish also have a notable presence; one in 50 New Yorkers of European origin carry a distinctive genetic signature on their Y chromosomes inherited from Niall of the Nine Hostages, an Irish high king of the fifth century A.D.[54]

New York City has a high degree of income disparity. In 2005 the median household income in the wealthiest census tract was $188,697, while in the poorest it was $9,320.[55] The disparity is driven by wage growth in high income brackets. In 2006 the average weekly wage in Manhattan was $1,453, the highest and fastest growing among the largest counties in the United States.[56] The borough is also experiencing a baby boom that is unique among American cities. Since 2000, the number of children under age 5 living in Manhattan grew by more than 32%.[57]

[edit] Government

Mayor Michael Bloomberg visiting with Grand Rabbi Moshe Leib Rabinovich of the Munkacs Hasidic sect in Brooklyn.
Mayor Michael Bloomberg visiting with Grand Rabbi Moshe Leib Rabinovich of the Munkacs Hasidic sect in Brooklyn.
A New York police car in Times Square.
A New York police car in Times Square.

Since its consolidation in 1898, New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a "strong" mayor-council form of government. The government of New York is more centralized than that of most other U.S. cities. In New York City, the central government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services.

The mayor and councillors are elected to four-year terms. The New York City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 Council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. The mayor and councilors are limited to two four-year terms.

The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. 66% of registered voters in the city are Democrats.[58] Party platforms center on affordable housing, education and economic development. Labor politics are important in the city. New York is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States. Four of the top five zip codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top zip code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of both George W. Bush and John Kerry.[59]

The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. New York City receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). The city also sends an additional $11 billion more each year to the state of New York than it receives back.[60]

The mayor is Michael Bloomberg, a former Democrat elected as a Republican in 2001 and re-elected in 2005 with 59% of the vote.[61] He is known for taking control of the city's education system from the state, rezoning and economic development, sound fiscal management, and aggressive public health policy. In his second term he has made school reform, poverty reduction, and strict gun control central priorities of his administration.

As the host of the United Nations, New York City is home to the world's largest international consular corps, comprising 122 consulates, consulates general and honorary consulate offices.[62]

[edit] Crime

New York City has the lowest crime rate among the ten largest cities in the United States.[63] The city has seen a continuous trend of decreasing crime since 1991, with violent crime dropping 75% since then. Neighborhoods that were once considered dangerous are now much safer. The murder rate in 2005 was at its lowest level since 1963. Overall, New York City had a rate of 2,802 crimes per 100,000 people in 2004, compared with 8,960 in Dallas; 7,904 in Detroit; 7,402 in Phoenix; 7,347 in San Antonio; 7,195 in Houston; 5,471 in Philadelphia; 4,376 in Los Angeles; and 4,103 in San Diego.[64]

[edit] Education

Brooklyn College is part of the City University of New York, the largest urban university in the United States.
Brooklyn College is part of the City University of New York, the largest urban university in the United States.

The city's public school system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest in the United States. About 1.1 million students are taught in more than 1,200 separate primary and secondary schools.[65] There are about 1,000 additional privately run secular and religious schools in the city. These include some of the most prestigious private schools in the United States. New York is also home to many major libraries, universities, and research centers.

Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most post-graduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, 40,000 licensed physicians, and 127 Nobel laureates with roots in local institutions.[66] The city receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health among all U.S. cities.[67] Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine and Weill Cornell Medical College.

Though it is not often thought of as a "College Town", there are about 594,000 university students in New York City, the highest number of any city in the United States.[68] In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates and one out of four had advanced degrees, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city.[69] Public postsecondary education is provided by the City University of New York, the nation's third-largest public university system. New York City is also home to such notable private universities as Columbia University, New York University and Fordham University. The city has dozens of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions.

The New York Public Library is one of the largest public library systems in the country. Its Library for the Humanities research center has 39 million items in its collection, among them the first five folios of Shakespeare's plays, ancient Torah scrolls, and Alexander Hamilton's handwritten draft of the United States Constitution.

[edit] Transportation

Grand Central Terminal is one of the two busiest rail stations in the United States.
Grand Central Terminal is one of the two busiest rail stations in the United States.

Public transit is the overwhelmingly dominant form of travel for New Yorkers.[70] About one in every three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in New York and its not suburbs.[71][72] This is in contrast to the rest of the country, where about 90% of commuters drive automobiles to their workplace.[70] New York is the only city in the United States where more than half of all households do not own a car (in Manhattan, more than 75% of residents do not own a car; nationally, the percentage is 8%).[70]

The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by track mileage (656 miles, or 1,056 km of mainline track), and the fourth-largest when measured by annual ridership (1.4 billion passenger trips in 2005).[71] The transportation system in New York City is extensive and complex. It includes the longest suspension bridge in North America,[73] the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel,[74] more than 12,000 yellow cabs[75] and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan.

The Brooklyn Bridge, the Manhattan Bridge is in the background
The Brooklyn Bridge, the Manhattan Bridge is in the background

New York City's public bus fleet and commuter rail network are the largest in North America.[71] The rail network, which connects the suburbs in the tri-state region to the city, has more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines.[71][76][77] The commuter rail system converges at the two busiest rail stations in the United States, Grand Central Terminal and Penn Station.[78][79]

New York City is the top international air passenger gateway to the United States.[80] The city is served by three major airports, Kennedy (also known as JFK), Newark and LaGuardia. 100 million travelers used the three airports in 2005; New York City's airspace is the busiest in the nation.[81] Outbound international travel from JFK and Newark accounted for about a quarter of all U.S. travelers who went overseas in 2004.[82]

New York's high rate of public transit use, 120,000 daily cyclists[83] and many pedestrian commuters makes it one of the most energy-efficient cities in the United States.[18] It is well positioned to endure an oil crisis with an extended gasoline price shock in the range of US$3 to US$8 per gallon.[84] Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%.[85]

[edit] Sports

The program for the 1936 Subway Series.
The program for the 1936 Subway Series.

New York City has teams in each of the major American professional sports leagues. Baseball is the city's most closely followed sport. There have been fourteen World Series championship series between New York City teams; such matchups are called Subway Series. The city's two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets and the New York Yankees, which enjoy a fierce rivalry. There are also two minor league baseball teams in the city, the Brooklyn Cyclones and Staten Island Yankees.

New York City has a rich basketball history as well. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. Rucker Park in Harlem is a celebrated court where many professional athletes play in the summer league. The city's National Basketball Association team is the New York Knicks.

The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and New York Jets, and in the National Hockey League by the New York Rangers and the New York Islanders. The headquarters of the National Hockey League is in Manhattan.

As a global city, New York supports many events outside the big four American sports. These include the U.S. Tennis Open, the New York City Marathon and the Millrose Games, an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Red Bull New York, formerly known as the MetroStars, is a professional soccer club based in New Jersey that participates in Major League Soccer. Many sports are associated with New York's immigrant communities. Stickball, a street version of baseball, was popularized by youths in working class Italian and Irish neighborhoods in the 1930s. In recent years several amateur cricket leagues have emerged with the arrival of immigrants from South Asia and the Caribbean.[86]

[edit] Sister cities

New York City has ten sister cities.[87] The year each relationship was formed is shown in parentheses below.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ a b c "The role of metro areas in the U.S. economy", The United States Conference of Mayors, 2006-01-13. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  2. ^ a b New York City Department of City Planning. Land Use Facts. Retrieved on 2007-03-13. New York City's total area is 468.9 mi². 159.88 mi² of this is water and 321 mi² is land.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g New York City Department of City Planning. The Current Population of NYC (2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-13.These figures were adopted by the U.S. Census Bureau in September 2006.
  4. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-08-31.
  5. ^ Toop, David (1992). Rap Attack 2: African Rap to Global Hip Hop. Serpents Tail. ISBN 1852422432. 
  6. ^ a b New York State Office of the State Comptroller. "Queens: Economic Development and the State of the Borough Economy", 06-2006. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  7. ^ a b New York City Department of City Planning. "The Newest New Yorkers: 2000", 2005. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  8. ^ Rodgers, Cleveland (1948). New York: The World's Capital City. Harper. 
  9. ^ Miller, Christopher L.; George R. Hamell (September 1986). "A New Perspective on Indian-White Contact: Cultural Symbols and Colonial Trade". The Journal of American History 73 (2). Retrieved on 2007-03-21. 
  10. ^ Burns, Ric (2003-08-22). "Transcript", The Center of the World - New York: A Documentary Film. PBS. Retrieved on 2006-07-20. 
  11. ^ Lopate, Phillip (2004). Waterfront: A Walk Around Manhattan. Anchor Press. ISBN 0385497148. 
  12. ^ Toop, David (1992). Rap Attack 2: African Rap to Global Hip Hop. Serpents Tail. ISBN 1852422432. 
  13. ^ Frazier, Ian. "Utopia, the Bronx", The New Yorker, 2006-06-26. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  14. ^ O'Donnell, Michelle. "In Queens, It's the Glorious 4th, and 6th, and 16th, and 25th...", New York Times, 2006-07-04. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  15. ^ Roberts, Sam. "Black Incomes Surpass Whites in Queens", The New York Times, 2006-01-10. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  16. ^ a b c New York State Climate Office. The Climate of New York. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  17. ^ Riley, Mary Elizabeth (2006), Assessing the Impact of Interannual Climate Variability on New York City's Reservoir System, Cornell University Graduate School for Atmospheric Science
  18. ^ a b Jervey, Ben (2006). The Big Green Apple: Your Guide to Eco-Friendly Living in New York City. Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 0762738359. 
  19. ^ "1999 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment", Environmental Protection Agency, 2006-02. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  20. ^ DePalma, Anthony. "It Never Sleeps, but It's Learned to Douse the Lights", The New York Times, 2005-12-11. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  21. ^ Metropolitan Transportation Authority. A Century of Buses in New York City. Retrieved on 2006-11-17. See also Sierra Club (2005-07-01). New York City’s Yellow Cabs Go Green. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  22. ^ a b Pogrebin, Robin. "7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York's Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers", The New York Times, 2006-04-16. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  23. ^ PlaNYC (2006-12-06). Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  24. ^ Owen, David. "Green Manhattan: Why New York is the Greenest City in the U.S.", The New Yorker, 2004-10-18. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  25. ^ Miele, Joel A., Sr (1998-11-20). "Maintaining Water Quality that Satisfies Customers: New York City Watershed Agricultural Program". International Water Supply Symposium Tokyo 1998, New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved on 2006-11-17. 
  26. ^ New York City Department of Environmental Protection. "New York City 2005 Drinking Water Supply and Quality Report", 2006-06-08. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  27. ^ a b Center for an Urban Future. "Creative New York", 2005-12. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  28. ^ Emporis. About New York City. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  29. ^ B. Diamonstein–Spielvoegel, Barbaralee (2005). The Landmarks of New York. Monacelli Press. ISBN 1580931545.  See also Whyte, William H. (1939). The WPA Guide to New York City. New Press. ISBN 1565843215. 
  30. ^ Ivry, Sara. "Since Riders had no Subways, Commuter Papers Struggled, Too", The New York Times, 2005-12-26. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  31. ^ a b The Governors Island Preservation & Education Corporation. "Request for Expressions of Interest", 2005. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  32. ^ New York City Economic Development Corporation. "Media and Entertainment". Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  33. ^ Editor & Publisher. "Ethnic Press Booms In New York City", 2002-07-10. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  34. ^ The Mayor's Office of Film, Theater and Broadcasting. "2005 is banner year for production in New York", 2005-12-28. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  35. ^ Radio Research Consortium (2006-08-28). "Top 30 Public Radio Subscribers: Spring 2006 Arbitron". Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  36. ^ NYC & Company. "NYC Statistics". Retrieved on 2006-08-03.
  37. ^ The Trust for Public Land, Center for City Park Excellence. "City Park Facts", 2006-06. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  38. ^ Bleyer, Jennifer. "Kebabs on the Night Shift", The New York Times, 2006-05-14. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  39. ^ Collins, Glenn. "Michelin Takes on the City, Giving Some a Bad Taste", The New York Times, 2005-11-03. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  40. ^ Sassen, Saskia (2001). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo, 2nd edition, Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691070636. 
  41. ^ a b New York City Department of Finance. "Tentative Assessment Roll: Fiscal Year 2008", 2007-01-15. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  42. ^ Claessens, Stjin. "Electronic Finance: Reshaping the Financial Landscape Around the World", The World Bank, 2000-09. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  43. ^ McGeehan, Patrick. "Top Executives Return Offices to Manhattan", The New York Times, 2006-07-03. Retrieved on 2006-07-12.
  44. ^ Wylde, Kathryn. "Keeping the Economy Growing", Gotham Gazette, 2006-01-23. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  45. ^ New York City Economic Development Corporation. "Telecommunications and Economic Development in New York City: A Plan for Action", 2005-03. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  46. ^ The Mayor's Office for Industrial and Manufacturing Business. "Protecting and Growing New York City's Industrial Job Base", 2005-01. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  47. ^ a b The Mayor's Office for Industrial and Manufacturing Business. "More Than a Link in the Food Chain", 2007-02. Retrieved on 2007-02-14.
  48. ^ New York City Department of City Planning. "New York City Population Projections by Age/Sex and Borough, 2000-2030", 12-2006. Retrieved on 2007-03-27. See also Roberts, Sam. "By 2025, Planners See a Million New Stories in the Crowded City", New York Times, 2006-02-19. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  49. ^ For cities with more than 200,000 residents.G.I.S. Lounge U.S. Population Density, 2000 Census. Retrieved on 2006-01-29.
  50. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000 Data for the State of New York. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  51. ^ New York City Department of City Planning. "Appendix Table 5-4: Ten Largest Sources of the Foreign-Born by County New York Metropolitan Region, 2000", 2005. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  52. ^ United Jewish Appeal-Federation of New York. "Jewish Community Study of New York", 2002. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  53. ^ Asian American Federation of New York. "Census Profile:New York City's Indian American Population", 2004. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  54. ^ Moore, Laoise T. (February 2006). "A Y-Chromosome Signature of Hegemony in Gaelic Ireland". The American Journal of Human Genetics 78 (2): 334-338.  See also Wade, Nicholas. "If Irish Claim Nobility, Science May Approve", The New York Times, 2006-01-18. Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  55. ^ Roberts, Sam. "In Manhattan, Poor Make 2 Cents for Each Dollar to the Rich", The New York Times, 2005-04-09. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  56. ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. "Average Weekly Wage in Manhattan at $1,453 in Second Quarter 2006", 2007-02-20. Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
  57. ^ Roberts, Sam. "In Surge in Manhattan Toddlers, Rich White Families Lead Way", The New York Times, 2007-03-27. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  58. ^ New York State Board of Elections. "County Enrollment Totals", 2006-04-01. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  59. ^ 2006 Election Overview: Top Zip Codes. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  60. ^ New York City Finance Division. "A Fair Share of State Budget: Does Albany Play Fair with NYC?", 2005-03-11. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  61. ^ New York City Board of Elections. "Statement and Return Report for Certification: General Election 2005", 2005-11-08. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  62. ^ U.S. Department of State. "Foreign Consular Offices in the United States", 2006-08-04. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  63. ^ Zeranski, Todd. "NYC Is Safest City as Crime Rises in U.S., FBI Say", Bloomberg News, 2006-06-12 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-30. See also Wikipedia article United States Cities by Crime Rate (based on 2005 FBI crime statistics).
  64. ^ U.S. Department of Justice. "The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City", 2004-10-21. Retrieved on 2007-02-14.
  65. ^ New York City Department of City Planning (2000). School Enrollment by Level of School and Type of School for Population 3 Years and Over. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  66. ^ New York City Economic Development Corporation. "Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Economic Development Corporation President Andrew M. Alper Unveil Plans to Develop Commercial Bioscience Center in Manhattan", 2004-11-18. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  67. ^ National Institutes of Health (2003). NIH Domestic Institutions Awards Ranked by City, Fiscal Year 2003. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  68. ^ Brookings Institution (2003-11). "New York in Focus: A Profile from Census 2000". Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  69. ^ McGeehan, Patrick. "New York Area Is a Magnet For Graduates", The New York Times, 2006-08-16. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  70. ^ a b c U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. "NHTS 2001 Highlights Report, BTS03-05", 2001. Retrieved on 2006-05-21.
  71. ^ a b c d Metropolitan Transportation Authority. "The MTA Network". Retrieved on 2006-05-17.
  72. ^ Pisarski, Alan. "Commuting in America III: Commuting Facts", Transportation Research Board, 2006-10-16. Retrieved on 2007-03-27.
  73. ^ Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  74. ^ National Park Service. "Holland Tunnel", 1993-11-04. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  75. ^ New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission. "The State of the NYC Taxi", 2006-03-09. Retrieved on 2006-08-02.
  76. ^ Metropolitan Transportation Authority. "About the MTA Long Island Rail Road". Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  77. ^ NJ Transit. "Facts at a Glance", 2005. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  78. ^ Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Grand Central Demographics. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  79. ^ National Amtrak Facts. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  80. ^ U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. "U.S. International Travel and Transportation Trends, BTS02-03", 2002. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  81. ^ The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. "2005 Annual Airport Traffic Report", 2006-11-02. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  82. ^ The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. "Port Authority Leads Nation in Record-Setting Year for Travel Abroad", 2005-08-29. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  83. ^ Schaller, Bruce. "Biking It", Gotham Gazette, 2006-06. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  84. ^ SustainLane. "U.S. Cities’ Preparedness for an Oil Crisis", 2006-03. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
  85. ^ U.S. Department of Transportation. "2001 National Household Travel Survey: Summary of Travel Trends", 2004-12. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  86. ^ Sas, Adrian (Producer). (2006). It's my Park: Cricket [TV-Series]. New York City: NYCTV.
  87. ^ Sister City Program of the City of New York. "NYC's Sister Cities", 2006.
  88. ^ Jerusalem is disputed territory. See East Jerusalem. Here it is accepted as belonging to Israel and appears listed with the Israeli flag. For further sister city information, see the Sister City Online Directory.

[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links

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