Military of Indonesia
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|Military of Indonesia
Flag of Indonesia
|60,543,028, age 18–49 (2005 est.)|
|48,687,234, age 18–49 (2005 est.)|
|2,201,047 (2005 est.)|
|Budget||$1.3 billion (2004)|
|Percent of GDP||3%|
Indonesia's armed forces (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia, abbreviated as TNI, formerly Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia, abbreviated as ABRI) total about 361,823 members, including the Army (TNI-AD), Navy(including marines), and Air Force. The army is by far the largest, with about 276,953 active-duty personnel. Defence spending in the national budget is only 3% of GDP but is supplemented by revenue from many military-run businesses and foundations.
Air Chief Marshal Djoko Suyanto is the Commander-in-Chief.
The Indonesian National Police were for many years a branch of the armed forces. The police were formally separated from the military in April 1999, a process which was formally completed in July 2000. With 150,000 personnel, the police form a much smaller portion of the population than in most nations. The total number of national and local police in 2006 was approximately 470,000.
Following the 2004 tsunami in Aceh the American government suspended the spare parts embargo for non-lethal equipment and military vehicles to support the humanitarian effort in the tsunami-devastated Indonesian regions of Aceh and Nias.
By cooperating with local military equipment manufacturers such as Pindad and Hoverindo Nusa Persada, the Indonesian military is now capable of manufacturing its own military equipment, which mostly ranges in areas of small arms and a type of tactical Infantry Fighting Vehicle such as Barracuda due to Indonesia's inability to master more advanced and larger weaponry such as armor, air and naval units.
 Political role of the military
During the Suharto era, the military was sometimes said to have a "dual function" (dwifungsi) in Indonesia; first, it would preserve the internal and external security of the country, preserving it as a unified nation, and second, it would ensure that government policy followed a path that the military leadership felt was wise.
This justified substantial military interference in politics. Long-time president Suharto was an army general, and was strongly supported by most of the military establishment. Traditionally a significant number of cabinet members had military backgrounds, while active duty and retired military personnel occupied a large number of seats in the parliament. Commanders of the various territorial commands played influential roles in the affairs of their respective regions.
Indonesia has not had a substantial conflict with its neighbours since the 1963-1965 confrontation with Malaysia, although competing South China Sea claims, where Indonesia has large natural gas reserves, concern the Indonesian government. Without a credible external threat in the region, the military's primary role in practice has been to assure internal security. Military leaders now say they wish to transform the military to a professional, external security force but acknowledge that the armed forces will continue to play an internal security role for some time.
In the post-Suharto period since 1998, civilian and military leaders have advocated removing the military from politics (for example, the military's representatives in parliament have been much reduced), but the military's political influence remains extensive. The TNI has been notorious since the alleged massacre of pro-communist ethnic Chinese in 1965-6 and the East Timor Crisis, which in both events, the TNI allegedly neglected and killed hundreds and thousands of people.
Estimated strength 276,953
- Military Area Commands (Kodam), incorporating provincial and district commands each with a number of infantry battalions, sometimes a cavalry battalion, artillery, or engineers. The Military Balance lists 11; (Indonesian wikipedia lists 12), and those are:
- Kodam Iskandar Muda, overseeing Aceh province as part of the Aceh special autonomy law. Previously under the Kodam I/Bukit Barisan.
- Kodam I/Bukit Barisan, overseeing northern Sumatra provinces of North Sumatra, West Sumatra, Riau and Riau Islands.
- Kodam II/Sriwijaya, overseeing southern provinces on Sumatra island of Jambi, Bengkulu, Bangka Belitung, South Sumatra and Lampung.
- Kodam Jaya, overseeing Jakarta as the capital city of Indonesia.
- Kodam III/Siliwangi, overseeing West Java and Banten provinces.
- Kodam IV/Diponegoro, overseeing Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces.
- Kodam V/Brawijaya, overseeing East Java province.
- Kodam VI/Tanjungpura, overseeing all provinces on Kalimantan island (Borneo) of Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and West Kalimantan.
- Kodam VII/Wirabuana, overseeing all provinces on Sulawesi island of Gorontalo, Central Sulawesi, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi.
- Kodam IX/Udayana, overseeing provinces of Bali, East Nusa Tenggara and West Nusa Tenggara. Former Indonesian province of East Timor was also under the jurisdiction of Kodam IX/Udayana.
- Kodam XVI/Pattimura, overseeing Maluku and North Maluku provinces.
- Kodam XVII/Trikora, overseeing West Irian Jaya and Papua provinces.
- Special Forces Command (Kopassus), est 55,300, Three groups
- Strategic Reserve Command(Kostrad), est 350,000
- 1st Division, with 3rd, 13th, and 17th Airborne Brigades
- 2nd Division, with 6th, 9th, 18th Airborne Brigades
 The Army's equipments
Tanks: About 275 x AMX-13, 70 x Scorpion (most with 90mm guns), 30 x PT-76
Armoured Cars and Armored Personnel Carriers: 200 x Commando Ranger, 78 x Saladin, 55 x Ferret, 128 x Commando Scout, 50 x Commando Stormer, 200 x AMX-VCI MICV, 182 AMX-VTT, 50 x AMX-10PS, 55 x Saracen (14 upgraded), 58 x V-150 Commando, 130 x BTR-40S (Modified), 50 x Renault VAB, 25 x BTR-50, 18 x Panhard VBL
Self-Propelled Artillery: 105 mm: 40 x 105mm howitzer, 50 x AMX FV MK61
Towed Artillery: 76mm: 50 x M 48 guns/howitzers; 105 mm: 170 x M-101, 10 x M-56; 155mm: field howitzer (FH) 88
Mortars: 875 x 81mm, 800 x 120mm, 75 x Brandt
Recoilless Rifles: 90mm: 90 x M-67; 106mm: 45 x M-40A1; 89 mm: 700 x LRAC (Anti armor)
Anti-Aircraft Guns: 20mm: 125 x Rheinmetal; 40mm: 90 x L70, 90 x M-1, 57mm: 200 x S-60
Surface to Air Weapons: 51 x Rapier/Blindfire, 42 x RBS-70
Engineer Vehicles: AMX-13 ARV, T-54/55 ARV, AMX-13 AVLB, Stormer AVLB, Stormer HMLC
Unarmored Vehicles: Steyr 700 AP, Nissan Q4W73, DAF YA 400, Land Rover LWB, M-151 Jeep, Leyland 4000 kg, Unimog trucks, Steyr 680M, Bedford MK, Steyr 17M29, Cakra FAV, Flyer FAV.
 Aircraft inventory
The Army operates 85 aircraft, including 73 helicopters.
|Aero Commander||United States||utility transport||680||3|
|Bell 47||United States||utility helicopter||47G||10|
|Bell 205||United States||utility helicopter||205A-1||10|
|Bell 412||United States||transport helicopter||412
|Britten-Norman Islander||United Kingdom||utility transport||BN-2A||1|
|CASA C-212 Aviocar||Spain||tactical transport||2|
|Cessna 310||United States||utility transport||4|
|Douglas DC-3||United States||tactical transport||C-47||2|
|Eurocopter Bo 105||Indonesia||utility helicopter||17||built by IPTN|
|Mil Mi-35||Russia||attack helicopter||2|
|Schweizer 300||United States||utility helicopter||300C||6|
 Aircraft inventory
The Navy operates 75 aircraft, including 23 helicopters.
|Bell 412||United States||transport helicopter||3|
|CASA C-212 Aviocar|| Spain
|NC-212 built by IPTN|
|CASA CN-235||Indonesia||tactical transport||8||built by IPTN|
|de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo||Canada||tactical transport||DHC-5D||2|
|Eurocopter Bo 105||Indonesia||utility helicopter||Bo 105C||8|
|Eurocopter Cougar||Indonesia||transport helicopter||AS 332F||12|
|Piper PA-34||United States||utility||4|
|Piper PA-38||United States||utility||PA-38-112||6|
 Air Force
Personnel of the Indonesian Air Force total 27,673.
In 2005 the Indonesian Air Force experienced a logistics crisis, especially in regard to the F-16 Fighting Falcons and A-4 Skyhawks that account for almost 80% of the total number of Indonesian combat aircraft. The supply of spare parts for these aircraft from the United States was stopped due to an embargo imposed on Indonesia following a number of violations against civil and human rights in East Timor. This led to the grounding of most of the Western-made fighters.
In response to this embargo, in 2003 the Indonesian Air Force bought two Sukhoi Aerospace Su-27 Flankers and two Sukhoi Aerospace Su-30 Flanker-Ds. Indonesian Air Force only know 4 types of missile, first, it was the AS-1 Kennel, AIM-9 Sidewinder,AGM-65 Maverick and AA-2 Atoll
 Aircraft inventory
The Air Force operates 250 aircraft, including 23 combat jets and 63 helicopters.
|Aérospatiale Puma||Indonesia||transport helicopter||SA 330J||11||built by IPTN|
|BAE Hawk||United Kingdom||trainer/light fighter||Hawk 53
|Beechcraft T-34 Mentor||United States||trainer||T-34C||19|
|Boeing 737||United States||special missions||737-200
|CASA C-212 Aviocar||Spain||tactical transport||10|
|CASA CN-235||Indonesia||tactical transport||6||built by IPTN|
|Cessna 207||United States||utility||T207||5|
|Cessna 401||United States||utility transport||401A||5|
|Cessna 402||United States||utility transport||2|
|de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo||Canada||tactical transport||DHC-5D||3|
|Eurocopter Colibri||European Union||utility helicopter||EC 120B||12|
|Eurocopter Cougar||Indonesia||transport helicopter||AS 332
|built by IPTN|
|FFA AS-202 Bravo||Switzerland||trainer||32|
|Fokker F27 Friendship||Netherlands||tactical transport||F27-400M||6|
|Fokker F28 Fellowship||Netherlands||transport||F28-1000
|Korean Aerospace KT-1||Republic of Korea||trainer||12|
|Lockheed C-130 Hercules||United States||tactical transport||C-130B
|Lockheed F-16 Fighting Falcon||United States||fighter||F-16A
|MD Helicopters MD 500||United States||utility helicopter||MD 500D||12|
|Northrop F-5||United States||fighter||F-5E Tiger II
F-5F Tiger II
|Rockwell OV-10 Bronco||United States||liaison||OV-10F||2|
|Sikorsky S-58||United States||utility helicopter||S-58T||8|
|Sukhoi Su-27||Russia||fighter||SU 27 SK||2|
While not strictly part of the armed forces, the national police often operate in a paramilitary role, independently or in cooperation with the other services on internal security missions.
 Aircraft inventory
The police operate 43 aircraft, including 39 helicopters.
|Hawker 400XP||United States||VIP Transport||1|
|Beech 1900D||United States||utility transport||1|
|Bell 206||United States||utility helicopter||2|
|Cessna 310||United States||utility||2|
|Cessna 402||United States||utility||1|
|Enstrom 480||United States||utility helicopter||480B||18|
|Eurocopter Bo 105||Germany||utility helicopter||Bo 105C||10|
|Mil Mi-2||Poland||utility helicopter||9||built by PZL Świdnik|
|Skytruck||Poland||transport||??||built by PZL Mielec|
- Bresnan, John. 1993. Managing Indonesia: the modern political economy. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Many topics, including the political role of the military at the height of Suharto's New Order.
- Crouch, Harold. 1988. The army and politics in Indonesia. Ithaca:Cornell University Press.
- First published 1978. Now somewhat dated, but provides an influential overview of the role of the military in consolidating Suharto's power
- Kingsbury, Damien. 2003. Power politics and the Indonesian military. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
 External links
- Official Website of TNI
- Official Website of TNI-AD (Army)
- Official Website of TNI-AL (Navy)
- Official Website of TNI-AU (Air Force)
- Official Website of Polri (Indonesian Police)
- Official Website of the Department of Defense
- GlobalSecurity.org : Indonesia
- TNI - Indonesian army
- Indonesian Air Force
- Indonesian Civil-Military Relations - Civil-Military Relations in Post-Suharto Indonesia and the Implications for Democracy Today: A Preliminary Analysis
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