Military of Indonesia

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Military of Indonesia

Flag of Indonesia
Manpower
Available for
military service
60,543,028, age 18–49 (2005 est.)
Fit for
military service
48,687,234, age 18–49  (2005 est.)
Reaching military
age annually
2,201,047 (2005 est.)
Expenditures
Budget $1.3 billion (2004)
Percent of GDP 3%

Indonesia's armed forces (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia, abbreviated as TNI, formerly Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia, abbreviated as ABRI) total about 361,823 members, including the Army (TNI-AD), Navy(including marines), and Air Force. The army is by far the largest, with about 276,953 active-duty personnel. Defence spending in the national budget is only 3% of GDP but is supplemented by revenue from many military-run businesses and foundations.

Air Chief Marshal Djoko Suyanto is the Commander-in-Chief.

The Indonesian National Police were for many years a branch of the armed forces. The police were formally separated from the military in April 1999, a process which was formally completed in July 2000. With 150,000 personnel, the police form a much smaller portion of the population than in most nations. The total number of national and local police in 2006 was approximately 470,000.

Following the 2004 tsunami in Aceh the American government suspended the spare parts embargo for non-lethal equipment and military vehicles to support the humanitarian effort in the tsunami-devastated Indonesian regions of Aceh and Nias.

On 22 November 2005, the U.S. announced that military ties with Indonesia would be restored. The decision would end the six-year U.S. ban on arms sales. [1]

By cooperating with local military equipment manufacturers such as Pindad and Hoverindo Nusa Persada, the Indonesian military is now capable of manufacturing its own military equipment, which mostly ranges in areas of small arms and a type of tactical Infantry Fighting Vehicle such as Barracuda due to Indonesia's inability to master more advanced and larger weaponry such as armor, air and naval units.

Contents

[edit] Political role of the military

During the Suharto era, the military was sometimes said to have a "dual function" (dwifungsi) in Indonesia; first, it would preserve the internal and external security of the country, preserving it as a unified nation, and second, it would ensure that government policy followed a path that the military leadership felt was wise.

This justified substantial military interference in politics. Long-time president Suharto was an army general, and was strongly supported by most of the military establishment. Traditionally a significant number of cabinet members had military backgrounds, while active duty and retired military personnel occupied a large number of seats in the parliament. Commanders of the various territorial commands played influential roles in the affairs of their respective regions.

Indonesia has not had a substantial conflict with its neighbours since the 1963-1965 confrontation with Malaysia, although competing South China Sea claims, where Indonesia has large natural gas reserves, concern the Indonesian government. Without a credible external threat in the region, the military's primary role in practice has been to assure internal security. Military leaders now say they wish to transform the military to a professional, external security force but acknowledge that the armed forces will continue to play an internal security role for some time.

In the post-Suharto period since 1998, civilian and military leaders have advocated removing the military from politics (for example, the military's representatives in parliament have been much reduced), but the military's political influence remains extensive. The TNI has been notorious since the alleged massacre of pro-communist ethnic Chinese in 1965-6 and the East Timor Crisis, which in both events, the TNI allegedly neglected and killed hundreds and thousands of people.

[edit] Army

Estimated strength 276,953


[edit] The Army's equipments

Tanks: About 275 x AMX-13, 70 x Scorpion (most with 90mm guns), 30 x PT-76

Armoured Cars and Armored Personnel Carriers: 200 x Commando Ranger, 78 x Saladin, 55 x Ferret, 128 x Commando Scout, 50 x Commando Stormer, 200 x AMX-VCI MICV, 182 AMX-VTT, 50 x AMX-10PS, 55 x Saracen (14 upgraded), 58 x V-150 Commando, 130 x BTR-40S (Modified), 50 x Renault VAB, 25 x BTR-50, 18 x Panhard VBL

Self-Propelled Artillery: 105 mm: 40 x 105mm howitzer, 50 x AMX FV MK61

Towed Artillery: 76mm: 50 x M 48 guns/howitzers; 105 mm: 170 x M-101, 10 x M-56; 155mm: field howitzer (FH) 88

Mortars: 875 x 81mm, 800 x 120mm, 75 x Brandt

Recoilless Rifles: 90mm: 90 x M-67; 106mm: 45 x M-40A1; 89 mm: 700 x LRAC (Anti armor)

Anti-Aircraft Guns: 20mm: 125 x Rheinmetal; 40mm: 90 x L70, 90 x M-1, 57mm: 200 x S-60

Surface to Air Weapons: 51 x Rapier/Blindfire, 42 x RBS-70

Engineer Vehicles: AMX-13 ARV, T-54/55 ARV, AMX-13 AVLB, Stormer AVLB, Stormer HMLC

Unarmored Vehicles: Steyr 700 AP, Nissan Q4W73, DAF YA 400, Land Rover LWB, M-151 Jeep, Leyland 4000 kg, Unimog trucks, Steyr 680M, Bedford MK, Steyr 17M29, Cakra FAV, Flyer FAV.

Other: NDL-40

[edit] Aircraft inventory

The Army operates 85 aircraft, including 73 helicopters.

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service[2] Notes
Aero Commander Flag of United States United States utility transport 680 3
Bell 47 Flag of United States United States utility helicopter 47G 10
Bell 205 Flag of United States United States utility helicopter 205A-1 10
Bell 412 Flag of United States United States transport helicopter 412
412SP
14
14
Britten-Norman Islander Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom utility transport BN-2A 1
CASA C-212 Aviocar Flag of Spain Spain tactical transport 2
Cessna 310 Flag of United States United States utility transport 4
Douglas DC-3 Flag of United States United States tactical transport C-47 2
Eurocopter Bo 105 Flag of Indonesia Indonesia utility helicopter 17 built by IPTN
Mil Mi-35 Flag of Russia Russia attack helicopter 2
Schweizer 300 Flag of United States United States utility helicopter 300C 6

[edit] Navy

Personnel of the Indonesian Navy is estimated at 57,197. The Indonesian Navy purchased a number of ships of the former East German navy in the 1990s. Navy vessels include KRI Cobra and others.

[edit] Aircraft inventory

The Navy operates 75 aircraft, including 23 helicopters.

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service[2] Notes
Bell 412 Flag of United States United States transport helicopter 3
CASA C-212 Aviocar Flag of Spain Spain
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia
tactical transport C-212
NC-212
8
3
NC-212 built by IPTN
CASA CN-235 Flag of Indonesia Indonesia tactical transport 8 built by IPTN
de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo Flag of Canada Canada tactical transport DHC-5D 2
Eurocopter Bo 105 Flag of Indonesia Indonesia utility helicopter Bo 105C 8
Eurocopter Cougar Flag of Indonesia Indonesia transport helicopter AS 332F 12
GAF Nomad Flag of Australia Australia utility 21
Piper PA-34 Flag of United States United States utility 4
Piper PA-38 Flag of United States United States utility PA-38-112 6

[edit] Air Force

Personnel of the Indonesian Air Force total 27,673.

In 2005 the Indonesian Air Force experienced a logistics crisis, especially in regard to the F-16 Fighting Falcons and A-4 Skyhawks that account for almost 80% of the total number of Indonesian combat aircraft. The supply of spare parts for these aircraft from the United States was stopped due to an embargo imposed on Indonesia following a number of violations against civil and human rights in East Timor. This led to the grounding of most of the Western-made fighters.

In response to this embargo, in 2003 the Indonesian Air Force bought two Sukhoi Aerospace Su-27 Flankers and two Sukhoi Aerospace Su-30 Flanker-Ds. Indonesian Air Force only know 4 types of missile, first, it was the AS-1 Kennel, AIM-9 Sidewinder,AGM-65 Maverick and AA-2 Atoll

[edit] Aircraft inventory

The Air Force operates 250 aircraft, including 23 combat jets and 63 helicopters.

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service[2] Notes
Aermacchi SF-260 Flag of Italy Italy trainer SF-260W 15
Aérospatiale Puma Flag of Indonesia Indonesia transport helicopter SA 330J 11 built by IPTN
BAE Hawk Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom trainer/light fighter Hawk 53
Hawk 100
Hawk 200
4
7
30
Beechcraft T-34 Mentor Flag of United States United States trainer T-34C 19
Boeing 737 Flag of United States United States special missions 737-200
737-200 Adv
3
1
CASA C-212 Aviocar Flag of Spain Spain tactical transport 10
CASA CN-235 Flag of Indonesia Indonesia tactical transport 6 built by IPTN
Cessna 207 Flag of United States United States utility T207 5
Cessna 401 Flag of United States United States utility transport 401A 5
Cessna 402 Flag of United States United States utility transport 2
de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo Flag of Canada Canada tactical transport DHC-5D 3
Eurocopter Colibri Flag of European Union European Union utility helicopter EC 120B 12
Eurocopter Cougar Flag of Indonesia Indonesia transport helicopter AS 332
AS 332L
AS 322TT
3
2
5
built by IPTN
FFA AS-202 Bravo Flag of Switzerland Switzerland trainer 32
Fokker F27 Friendship Flag of Netherlands Netherlands tactical transport F27-400M 6
Fokker F28 Fellowship Flag of Netherlands Netherlands transport F28-1000
F28-3000
1
2
Korean Aerospace KT-1 Flag of South Korea Republic of Korea trainer 12
Lockheed C-130 Hercules Flag of United States United States tactical transport C-130B
C-130H
C-130H-30
KC-130B
L-100-20
L-100-30
8
1
1
2
1
1
Lockheed F-16 Fighting Falcon Flag of United States United States fighter F-16A
F-16B
7
3
MD Helicopters MD 500 Flag of United States United States utility helicopter MD 500D 12
Northrop F-5 Flag of United States United States fighter F-5E Tiger II
F-5F Tiger II
7
2
Rockwell OV-10 Bronco Flag of United States United States liaison OV-10F 2
Sikorsky S-58 Flag of United States United States utility helicopter S-58T 8
Sukhoi Su-27 Flag of Russia Russia fighter SU 27 SK 2
Sukhoi Su-30 Flag of Russia Russia fighter Su-30MK2 8

[edit] Police

While not strictly part of the armed forces, the national police often operate in a paramilitary role, independently or in cooperation with the other services on internal security missions.

[edit] Aircraft inventory

The police operate 43 aircraft, including 39 helicopters.

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service[2] Notes
Hawker 400XP Flag of United States United States VIP Transport 1
Beech 1900D Flag of United States United States utility transport 1
Bell 206 Flag of United States United States utility helicopter 2
Cessna 310 Flag of United States United States utility 2
Cessna 402 Flag of United States United States utility 1
Enstrom 480 Flag of United States United States utility helicopter 480B 18
Eurocopter Bo 105 Flag of Germany Germany utility helicopter Bo 105C 10
Fokker 50 Flag of Netherlands Netherlands transport 1
Mil Mi-2 Flag of Poland Poland utility helicopter 9 built by PZL Świdnik
Skytruck Flag of Poland Poland transport  ?? built by PZL Mielec

[edit] References

  1. ^ The Military Balance 2006, International Institute for Strategic Studies
  2. ^ a b c d "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
  • Bresnan, John. 1993. Managing Indonesia: the modern political economy. New York: Columbia University Press.
    • Many topics, including the political role of the military at the height of Suharto's New Order.
  • Crouch, Harold. 1988. The army and politics in Indonesia. Ithaca:Cornell University Press.
    • First published 1978. Now somewhat dated, but provides an influential overview of the role of the military in consolidating Suharto's power
  • Kingsbury, Damien. 2003. Power politics and the Indonesian military. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
  • [[2]]

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