From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Ville de Lyon|
|City flag||City coat of arms|
|Motto: Avant, avant, Lion le melhor.
(Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best)
|Time Zone||CET (GMT +1)|
|Mayor||Gérard Collomb (PS)
|Land area¹||47.87 km²|
|Population²||3rd in France|
|- 2004 estimate||465,300|
|- Density||9,720/km² (2004)|
|Urban Area||954 km² (1999)|
|- Population||1,348,832 (1999)|
|Metro Area||3,306 km² (1999)|
|- Population||1,648,216 (1999)|
|¹ French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 mi² or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
|² Population sans doubles comptes: single count of residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel).|
|Regionb||Europe and North America|
Lyon (former names include Lugdunum and Lyons), pronounced /ljɔ̃/ in French, is a city in east central France. The third largest French city, it is a major centre of business, situated between Paris and Marseille, and has a reputation as the French capital of gastronomy and a significant role in the history of cinema.
Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Lyon forms the second largest metropolitan area in France after Paris, with 1,648,216 inhabitants at the 1999 census, and approximately the 20th to 25th largest metropolitan area of Western Europe.
The city gave its name to the Lyonnais province, of which it was the capital. Today the region around Lyon is still known as Lyonnais (French: le Lyonnais), or sometimes even as the Lyonnaise Region (French: Région Lyonnaise). Lyonnaise Region is an unofficial, popular name, not to be confused with the administrative région of Rhône-Alpes, which is much larger than the Lyonnaise Region.
Lyon is know as the silk capital of the world and is known for its silk and textiles and is a center for fashion.
Lyon's geography is dominated by the Rhône and Saône rivers which converge to the south of the historic city centre forming a sort of peninsula or "presqu'île"; two large hills, one to the west and one to the north of the historic city centre; and a large plain which sprawls eastward from the historic city centre.
To the west is Fourvière, known as "the hill that prays", the location for the highly decorated Notre-Dame de Fourvière basilica, several convents, the palace of the Archbishop, the Tour métallique (a highly visible TV tower, replicating the last stage of the Eiffel Tower) and a funicular.
To the north is the Croix-Rousse, "the hill that works", traditionally home to many small silk workshops, an industry for which the city was renowned.
The original medieval city (Vieux Lyon) was built on the west bank of the Saône river at the foot of the Fourvière hill, west of the presqu'île. (This area, along with portions of the presqu'ile and much of the Croix-Rousse are recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, see below.)
On the peninsula (presqu'ile) between the rivers Rhône and Saône is located the third largest public square in France, and one of the largest in Europe, the Place Bellecour. Specifically, it is the largest clear square (i.e., without any patches of greenery, trees or any other kind of obstacles) in Europe. The broad, pedestrian-only Rue de la République leads north from Place Bellecour
East of the Rhône from the presqu'ile is a large area of flat ground upon which sits much of modern Lyon and most of the city's population.
Situated in this area is the urban center of Part-Dieu which clusters the former Credit Lyonnais Tower (central France's only skyscraper), the Part-Dieu shopping centre, and Lyon's main rail terminal, Lyon Part-Dieu.
North of this district is the relatively wealthy sixth arrondissement which is home to the Parc de la Tête d'Or, one of Europe's largest urban parks, and Interpol's headquarters.
- Main article: Arrondissements of Lyon
Similarly to Marseille and Paris, Lyon is divided into 9 municipal arrondissements (often translated into English as borough), referred to by number. The arrondissements were originally created in 1852 when a number of surrounding communes (Croix-Rousse, Guillotière, and Vaise) were annexed to Lyon. In 1963 Lyon annexed the commune of Saint-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe, and in 1964 the 9th arrondissement of Lyon was created as a result of the annexation, thus reaching a total of nine arrondissements, which are still the arrondissements found in Lyon today. Within each arrondissement, there are a number of recognisable "quartiers" or neighborhoods:
- 1st arrondissement: Pentes de la Croix-Rousse, Les Terreaux, Saint-Vincent
- 2nd arrondissement: Cordeliers, Bellecour, Ainay, Perrache et Confluent
- 3rd arrondissement: La Part-Dieu, La Villette, Montchat, La Guillotière, Sans-souci
- 4th arrondissement: La Croix-Rousse, Serin
- 5th arrondissement: Saint-Jean- Saint-Paul - Saint-Georges (Vieux Lyon), Saint-Just, Fourvière, Le Point-du-Jour, Ménival, Champvert, La Sarra, Saint-Irénée
- 6th arrondissement: Les Brotteaux, Bellecombe, Tête d'Or
- 7th arrondissement: La Guillotière, Gerland, La Mouche
- 8th arrondissement: Monplaisir, Le Bachut, Mermoz, États-Unis, Le Grand Trou, Moulin à Vent, Laënnec, Grange-Blanche
- 9th arrondissement: Vaise, La Duchère, Saint-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe
Lyon was founded as a Roman colony in 43 BCE by Munatius Plancus, a lieutenant of Caesar, on the site of a Gaulish hill-fort settlement called Lug[o]dunon—from the Celtic sun god Lugus ('Light', cognate to Old Irish Lugh, Modern Irish Lú) and dúnon (hill-fort). Lyon was first named Lughunum meaning the "hill of lights" or "the hill of crows". Lug was equated by the Romans to Mercurius. Lug's 'totem' was a cockerel (rooster), hence the Modern French association with 'le coq'.
The three parts of Gaul mentioned by Caesar met at Lyon. Agrippa recognized that Lugdunum's position on the natural highway from northern to south-eastern France made it a natural communications hub, and he made Lyon the starting point of the principal Roman roads throughout Gaul. It then became the capital of Gaul, partly thanks to its fortunate site at the convergence of two navigable rivers, and quickly became the main city of Gaul. Two emperors were born in this city: Claudius and Caracalla. Today the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "le primat des Gaules".
The Christians in Lyon were persecuted for their religious views under the reigns of the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Septimus Severus. These included saints such as Blandina (Blandine), Pothinus, and Epipodius, among others.
The great Christian bishop of Lyon in the 2nd century was the Easterner Irenaeus.
Burgundian refugees from the destruction of Worms by Huns in 437 were resettled by the military commander of the west, Aëtius, at Lugdunum, which was formally the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom by 461.
Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, which is a constant structure in French development" from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution (Braudel 1984 p. 327). The fairs in Lyon, the invention of Italian merchants, made it the economic countinghouse of France in the late 15th century. When international banking moved to Genoa, then Amsterdam, Lyon simply became the banking center of France; its new Bourse (treasury), built in 1749, still resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. During the Renaissance, the city developed with the silk trade, especially with Italy; the Italian influence on Lyon's architecture can still be seen. Thanks to the silk trade, Lyon became an important industrial town during the 19th century.
The silk workers of Lyon, known as canuts, staged two major uprisings: in 1831 and 1834. The 1831 uprising saw one of the first recorded uses of the black flag as an emblem of protest.
Lyon was a center for the occupying German forces and also a stronghold of resistance during World War II, and the town is now home to a resistance museum. (See also Klaus Barbie.) The traboules, or secret passages, through the houses enabled the local people to escape Gestapo raids.
As early as the 13th century, the Arpitans, residents of the region spoke a dialect of the Arpitan (often called the Franco-Provençal language too). This Lyonnais dialect was replaced by the French language as the importance of the city grew. Lyon was an early center for printing books, and nurtured a circle of 16th century poets. For several centuries Lyon and its bouchons have been known as the capital of gastronomy, fine handweaving, and the silk trade. The Lumière brothers invented cinema in the town in 1895. December 8 each year is marked by "la Fête des lumières" (the Festival of Lights), a celebration of thanks to the Virgin Mary, who purportedly saved the city from a deadly plague in the Middle Ages. During the event, the local population places candles in their windows and the city of Lyon organizes and projects impressive large-scale light shows onto the sides of important Lyonnais monuments, such as the mediaeval Cathédral St-Jean. The church of Saint Francis of Sales is famous for its large and unaltered Cavaillé-Coll pipe organ, attracting audiences from around the world.
Lyon also features a renowned opera house.
 UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Saint-Jean and the Croix-Rousse areas, which are noted for their narrow passageways (traboules) that pass through buildings and link the streets either side, were designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1998.
 Colleges and universities
- CPE Lyon
- École Centrale de Lyon
- ECAM Lyon (École Catholique d'Arts et Métiers de Lyon) http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/ECAM http://www.ecam.fr
- EM Lyon (École de Management de Lyon)
- École Normale Supérieure de Lyon
- École Normale Supérieure Lettres et Sciences Humaines
- École Nationale des beaux-arts de Lyon
- Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon
- Institut d'études politiques de Lyon
- Institution des Chartreux http://www.leschartreux.com
- Université Claude Bernard (Lyon I)
- Université Louis Lumière (Lyon II)
- Université Jean Moulin (Lyon III)
- Université Catholique de Lyon
- Université professionelle internationale de Lyon (UPIL)
- ESDES Business School
- École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État
- La Martiniere Lyon
- Centre Européen d'Enseignement Supérieur de l'Ostéopathie- (CEESO) http://www.ceeso.com
 Main sights
- Tour métallique de Fourvière (1894)
- La Mouche Cattle Market and Abbatoir (1914, 1928), designed by Tony Garnier.
- Sainte Marie de La Tourette monastery (1960) designed by Le Corbusier
- Saint-Exupéry International Airport (formerly Satolas Airport, 1975), designed by Guillaume Gilbert.
- Opéra National de Lyon, renovated in 1993 by Jean Nouvel.
- Lyon Airport Railway Station (1994) by Santiago Calatrava.
- Cité Internationale (1998), designed by Renzo Piano.
- Cathédrale Saint-Jean
- Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière.
- Basilica of St-Martin-d'Ainay.
- The church of Ainay, dating from the tenth and eleventh centuries, is of the Byzantine style.
- The doorway of St. Nizier's (fifteenth century) was carved in the sixteenth century by Philibert Delorme.
Saint-Exupéry International Airport is located 20 km to the east of Lyon, and serves as a base for regional and international flights.
Lyon has two major train stations: Lyon-Part-Dieu, which was built to accommodate the TGV and has become the principal train station for extra-regional trains; whereas Lyon-Perrache is an older station that now primarily serves regional rail transport. In practice, many trains, including TGVs, serve both stations. Smaller train stations include Gorge de Loup, Vaise, Venissieux and Saint-Paul.
Lyon Saint-Exupéry International Airport is also directly connected to the TGV with its own station.
 Intercity coach
Lyon is served by the Eurolines intercity coach organisation. Its Lyon terminal is located at the Lyon-Perrache train station.
 Public transport
- Further information: Lyon Metro
The TCL (French:Transports en Commun Lyonnais), Lyon's public transport, consisting of metros, buses and trams, serves 62 communes of the Lyon agglomeration. The metro system has 4 lines, including one fully-autonomous one, 38 stations and runs with a frequency of up to a metro every 2.5 minutes. The bus system consists of normal buses, trolleybuses and coaches for areas outside the centre, but which operate on the same ticketing scheme. There are three tram lines since December 2006, running from Montrochet in the south to IUT-Fessine in the north, from Perrache station in the southwest to Saint-Priest in the southeast and from Part-Dieu to Meyzieu. This line T3 - also called "Lea"- (Part-Dieu to Meyzieu) has been opened on the 4th December 2006 and is the first tram in France which is able to get to 70 km/h.(43 MpH)
Lastly, Vélo'v is a bicycle network providing a low cost and convenient bicycle hire service where bicycles can be hired and dropped off at any of several hundred stations throughout the city.
 Born in Lyon
The long list of notable native Lyonnais includes:
- Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Claudius), Roman emperor
- Caracalla, 3rd century Roman emperor
- Sidonius Apollinaris (430-489)
- Madeleine Ravel, noted immigrant to the U.S. from Lyon
- the Jesuit Père Coton (1564-1626), confessor of Henry IV and a native of Néronde
- Maurice Scève, 16th century poet
- Rodolphe Laské, Baller
- Louise Labé, 16th century poet
- François Rabelais, 16th century writer
- Abbé Terray, controller general of finance under Louis XVI, a native of Boen (1715-1778).
- Abbé Morellet, litterateur (1727-1819)
- André-Marie Ampère (1775 - 1836)
- the Christian philosopher Ballanche (1776-1847)
- André Coindre, founder of the order of the Brothers of the Sacred Heart
- Allan Kardec (1804-1869), systematizer of spiritism
- the religious painter Hippolyte Flandrin (1809-1864)
- Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, painter of the life of Ste Geneviève (1824-1898)
- Jules Favre, republican statesman
- Tony Garnier, architect and utopian planner
- Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, aviation pioneer and writer
- Marie-France Gaîté (la Gribouille) (1941-1968), singer
- Maurice Jarre, composer
- Jean Michel Jarre, musician
- Bishop Mathias Loras, the first Bishop of the Dubuque, Iowa Diocese.
- Clovis Cornillac, French actor
- Bertrand Tavernier, movie director
- Bernard Pivot, journalist
- Hector Guimard, Art Nouveau architect
- Shlomo Aviner, renowned Religious Zionist rabbi
- Azouz Begag, writer, politician
- Dominique Perben, politician
- Abbé Pierre, founder of the Emmaüs foundation
- Jean-Claude Trichet, President of the European Central Bank
- Youri Djorkaeff, football player
- Éric Abidal, football player
- Ludovic Giuly, football player
- Raymond Domenech, current trainer of the French national football team
- Bernard Lacombe, former soccer player
- Maurice Herzog, mountaineer
- Olivier Panis, former Formula One racing driver
- Audrey Zampieri, linguist and academic
- David Charvet, Actor
 Living in Lyon
Lyon is home to Ligue 1 Football team Olympique Lyonnais, commonly known as Lyon or OL. The team has enjoyed unprecedented success recently, winning the last five national titles and establishing themselves as France's premier Football club. The captain of the side, Juninho Pernambucano is one of several Brazilians at Lyon, and he has received many awards while leading his team to unrivalled success. The team competes in the prestigious UEFA Champions League and plays at the impressive Stade de Gerland, where the Danone Nations Cup is held every year. Lyon also has a rugby union team, Lyon OU, currently playing in division 2, Rugby Pro D2. In Addition Lyon has a Rugby à Treize side. Lyon Villeurbanne Rhône à XIIIL are a Rugby League club in the French rugby league championship the club currently plays out of Stade George Lyvet in Villeurbanne.
 Twin cities
Lyon is twinned with:
- Birmingham, United Kingdom, since 1951
- Curitiba, Brazil
- Guangzhou, People's Republic of China, since 1988
- Milan, Italy, since 1966
- Saint Louis, United States, since 1975
- Philadelphia, United States
- Frankfurt, Germany, since 1960
- Leipzig, Germany, since 1981
- Yokohama, Japan, since 1959
- Kutaisi, Georgia, since 2006
- Yerevan, Armenia
- Łódź, Poland, since 1992
- Montréal, Québec, Canada, since 1989
- Gothenburg, Sweden
- Pécs, Hungary
 Partner cities
Lyon has as its partner city:
 Cultural references
- A historical article about a 19th century flood inspired the 1979 song "The Flood at Lyons" by Renaissance.
- In the Marillion song "Bitter Suite" from Misplaced Childhood there is a reference to Lyon. The line is: "The sky was bible black in Lyon, when I met the Magdalene."
- Morrissey, former singer with The Smiths, mentions Lyon in the 2006 song Christian Dior, which was a b-side to In The Future When All's Well. The line is: "You could have run wild, On the backstreets of Lyon or Marseille, Reckless and legless and stoned, Impregnating women, Or kissing mad street boys from Napoli, Who couldn't even write their own name"
- The city figures into the play The Lyons Mail by Charles Reade, which was adapted into a film in 1931.
- Lyon is also a popular multiplayer level on the real-time strategy game [Company of Heroes]. It's well liked due to the limited river crossing points which allow for good defensive and tactical play. For a 1v1 map it also boosts a larger than normal map size.
 External links
- Lyon official web site
- Lyon town hall
- View of Lyon (Google maps + wiki)
- Tourist information
- Lyon Partner cities
- Musée de l'Imprimerie de Lyon: one of the major printing history museums of Europe, with the Gutenburg at Mainz and the Plantin at Antwerp -- the Museum offers exhibits & conferences & classes for both adults and children -- occupies a beautiful old building (former city hall) in central Lyon.
- Objectif Lyon Pictures and descriptions of the monuments
- Lyon Photogallery
- 149 photos from Lyon
- Lyon City Guide History, photos, descriptions of churches and other religious sites, and travel information.
- Maps including public transport
- Phonebook of Lyon
- Lyon Poche, time out guide : cinema times, restaurants, concerts, theatre, expositions...
- Lyon City Guide
- murals.trompe-l-oeil.info Outdoor Murals and trompe-l-oeil of Lyon (and France, more than 11 000 pictures)
Cayenne (French Guiana) • Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe) • Fort-de-France (Martinique) • Saint-Denis (Réunion)