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It was originally constructed around 1910 at the town's western outskirt. Its most noted inmate was Adolf Hitler, who was incarcerated there in 1924 after his conviction on a charge of treason. It was during his imprisonment at Landsberg that Hitler dictated and then wrote his book Mein Kampf (My Struggle) with assistance from his deputy, Rudolf Hess. During the occupation of Germany by the Allies after World War II, the US Army designated the prison as "War Criminal Prison No. 1"  and held many convicted Nazi war criminals there. A number of executions of war criminals were also conducted at Landsberg. The last of these executions occurred on June 8, 1951 and were the last executions conducted within the Federal Republic of Germany, then commonly known as West Germany.
The facility is now maintained by the Prison Service of the Bavarian Ministry of Justice.
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