Judy Garland

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Judy Garland

1947 publicity still
Birth name Frances Ethel Gumm
Born June 10, 1922
Grand Rapids, Minnesota, U.S.A.
Died June 22, 1969, aged 47 (Overdose)
Chelsea, London, England, UK
Years active 1929 - 1969
Spouse(s) David Rose (1941 - 1945) (divorced)

Vincente Minnelli (1945 - 1952) (divorced) 1 daughter
Sidney Luft (1952 - 1965) (divorced) 1 daughter, 1 son
Mark Herron (1965 - 1967) (divorced)
Mickey Deans (1969) (her death)

Academy Awards
Nominated: Best Supporting Actress
1961 Judgment at Nuremberg

Nominated: Best Actress
1954 A Star Is Born

Academy Juvenile Award (1939)
Tony Awards
Special Tony Award (1952)
Golden Globe Awards
Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
1955 A Star Is Born
Cecil B. DeMille Award (1962)

Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922June 22, 1969) was an Oscar-nominated American film actress, considered by many to be one of the greatest singing stars of Hollywood's Golden Era of musical film, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale from The Wizard of Oz. Garland's singing voice had a natural vibrato, which she was able to maintain at extremely low volume. The effects which she was able to project enabled her to convey a wide range of emotion when she interpreted a song. The American Film Institute named Garland among the Greatest Female Stars of All Time, ranking at No. 8.

Contents

[edit] Biography

[edit] Childhood and Early Life

Born in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, Frances Ethel Gumm was the youngest child of former vaudevillians Frank Gumm and Ethel Marion Milne. Named for both her parents and baptized at the local Episcopal church, "Baby" (as Frances was affectionately called) shared the family's flair for song and dance. "Baby" Gumm's first appearance came at the age of two-and-a-half, when she joined her two older sisters, Mary Jane ("Suzy") and Dorothy Virginia ("Jimmie") on stage for a chorus of "Jingle Bells" in a Christmas show at her father's theater on December 26, 1924. In 1934, the sisters, who were touring the vaudeville circuit as "The Gumm Sisters", performed in Chicago at the Oriental Theater with George Jessel. He encouraged the group to choose a more appealing name after "Gumm" received small laughter from the audience. They settled on "The Garland Sisters", and young Frances soon afterward picked the name "Judy" after a popular song of the day by Hoagy Carmichael. A rumor persists that Jessel came up with the last name Garland after Carole Lombard's character Lily Garland in the film Twentieth Century, which was playing at the Oriental; another rumor is that the sisters came up with the surname Garland after drama critic Robert Garland,[1] though Lorna Luft stated in her book Me and My Shadows that her mother chose the name when Jessel announced that the trio of singers "looked prettier than a garland of flowers". Still another variation would surface in 1963 when Jessel guested on Garland's television show. He claimed on air that he had sent actress Judith Anderson a telegram containing the word "garland" and it stuck in his mind; Judy agreed. However, it's entirely possible that after twenty-nine years, even Jessel and Garland may have forgotten exactly how she was named.

In 1935 Garland was signed to a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, supposedly without a screen test; she had actually done a test for the studio several months earlier. Garland's first notice by studio executives came after singing an arrangement of "You Made Me Love You" to Clark Gable at a birthday party held by the studio for the actor; her rendition proved so popular that MGM placed Garland and the song in their all-star extravaganza Broadway Melody of 1938 (1937). On November 16, 1935, at the age of 13, Garland suffered a terrible blow while doing a radio performance on the Shell Chateau Hour, her beloved father who was hospitalized with spinal meningitis, took a turn for the worse. Her song that evening was her first professional rendition of "Zing! Went the Strings of My Heart," a song which would become a standard in many of her concerts.[2]

Judy Garland as "Dorothy" in The Wizard of Oz (1939).
Judy Garland as "Dorothy" in The Wizard of Oz (1939).

After a string of minor roles, she landed the role of "Dorothy" in the MGM film The Wizard of Oz (1939) at the age of 16, and has been associated ever since with the song "Over the Rainbow." She received an honorary Academy Award for her performance in the film. After Oz, Garland became one of MGM's most bankable stars, proving particularly popular when teamed with fellow "juvenile" star Mickey Rooney in a string of "let's put on a show!" musicals. The duo first appeared together in the 1937 b-movie Thoroughbreds Don't Cry. They became a sensation and they teamed up again in Love Finds Andy Hardy, and then soon after in Babes in Arms. Garland eventually would star with Rooney in nine films.

To keep up with the frantic pace of making one film after another, Garland, Rooney, and other young performers were constantly given amphetamines, as well as barbiturates, to take before bedtime.[3] For Garland, this constant dose of drugs would lead to addiction and a lifelong struggle, as well as her eventual demise. In her later life, she would resent the hectic work and she felt that her youth was stolen from her by MGM. Despite her ability to fill concert halls worldwide, critical praise, successful film and recording careers and several awards, throughout her life she was plagued with self-doubt and required constant reassurance that she was talented. Oscar Levant would later remark that ""At parties, Judy could sing all night, endlessly… but when it came time to appear on a movie set, she just wouldn't show up."[4]

[edit] Movie star

Judy Garland;1938. Garland (aged 16) was becoming one of the most recognizable child stars at MGM by this time.
Judy Garland;
1938. Garland (aged 16) was becoming one of the most recognizable child stars at MGM by this time.

Garland's physical appearance created a dilemma for MGM, and she felt unattractive. At only 4 foot 11 inches, Garland's girl next door or 'cute' looks did not exemplify the sexy or glamorous looks required for leading ladies of the time, and her appearance caused her anxiety. As she aged, Garland went through a transformation process throughout her film career. During her early years at the studio, she was photographed and dressed in plain garments, or frilly juvenile gowns and costumes to match the girl next door image that was created for her - and also to disguise her budding figure.

In 1940, she starred in three films; Andy Hardy Meets Debutante, Strike up the Band and Little Nellie Kelly, playing her first adult role, a dual role of mother and daughter. The project was purchased from George M. Cohan as a vehicle for Garland to assess both her audience appeal and her physical appearance. The role was a challenge for the young actress requiring the use of an accent, her first adult kiss and her first (and subsequently, only) death scene. The success of these three films–and a further three films in 1941– secured her position at MGM as a major property. In 1942, noticeably thinner, she was given the lead role in For Me and My Gal alongside Gene Kelly in his first screen appearance. She was top billed over the credits for the first time and effectively made the direct transition from teenage star to an adult actress.

By 1943, at the age of 21, she was finally given the "glamour treatment" in Presenting Lily Mars, in which she was dressed in "grown-up" gowns and her lightened hair was pulled-up in a stylish fashion. Years later when reflecting on her mother's film image, Liza Minnelli stated that in her opinion her mother looked "the most beautiful in this film". However, no matter how glamorous or beautiful she appeared on screen or in photographs, she was never confident in her appearance and never escaped the girl next door image that had been created for her.

By 1944, Garland was given a new make-up artist specifically requested by Vincente Minnelli. Dorothy Ponedel refined Judy's appearance in several ways, including extending and reshaping her eyebrows, tweezing her hairline, modifying her lipline and getting rid of the unnecessary nose discs. Judy appreciated the results so much that Ponedel was written into her contract for all her remaining pictures at MGM. Interestingly, MGM's attempts to "glamorize" Garland stopped in 1948, at which time her appearance was natural yet refined. Publicly, Garland stated that she was never quite happy with her appearance on screen except in Meet Me in St. Louis (1944) and The Clock (1945).

One of Garland's most successful films for MGM is the 1944 classic Meet Me in St. Louis, in which she introduced three standards: "The Trolley Song", "The Boy Next Door", and "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas". The Clock (1945) was her first straight dramatic film; she starred opposite Robert Walker. Though the film was critically praised and did earn a profit, most movie fans expected her to sing. Therefore, it would be many years before she acted again in a non-singing dramatic role.

Garland's other famous films of the 1940s include The Harvey Girls (1946) (in which she introduced "On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe" which was the Academy Award winning song for that year), The Pirate and Easter Parade (both 1948).

During filming for The Pirate, in April 1947, Garland suffered a nervous breakdown and had to be led away from the set.[5] After this, Garland had a number of other breakdowns that would lead to her departure from MGM; it would also reveal the emotional turmoil that Garland suffered. Two months later, Garland made her first suicide attempt.

[edit] Renewed stardom on the stage and television

In 1951, Garland divorced Vincente Minnelli and married Sid Luft, her manager at the time. In 1952, a daughter, Lorna Luft, was born. 1951 was a milestone year for Garland and established what was to become her performing style for the rest of her life. She turned to live concert appearances and took her new act to Britain, where she played to sold out audiences throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland [1]. This first European tour was an enormous success, and she appeared at the famous London Palladium for the first time. Shortly afterwards, Garland appeared at New York's Palace Theatre, also for the first time. For this, she received a special Tony Award. She also appeared on various television specials during the early 50s.

In 1954, she made a notable cinema comeback for Warner Bros. with A Star is Born, and was nominated for Best Actress. This film is considered by many critics to be her finest performance. Directed by George Cukor and produced by her husband Sid Luft (through Garland and Luft's Transcona Enterprises), it was a large undertaking in which Garland fully immersed herself. It was also a physically demanding role that had Garland on edge and, for the most part, constantly worried. Upon its release, the film was cut by almost 30 minutes amid fears it was too long.

In the run-up to the 1955 Academy Awards, Garland was believed to be the most likely winner for Best Actress. She could not attend the ceremony because she had just given birth to her son Joseph Luft; a television crew entered Garland's room with cameras and wires, in the hope that Garland would win the Best Actress award, to televise Garland's award speech. However, the Oscar went to Grace Kelly for The Country Girl (1954). Many fans hold that Garland was "robbed" of her Oscar, and should have won the award (Groucho Marx sent her a famous telegram after the awards, stating that it was "the biggest robbery since Brinks"). However she did win the Golden Globe award for Best Actress in a Musical that year.

Garland and Luft's original contract with Warner Bros. ensured a series of films to be made; however, due to the "butchering" of the movie, Garland and Luft made no more films for the studio.

Although she made no other films in the 1950s, Garland's films after A Star is Born include Judgment at Nuremberg (1961) (for which she was nominated for Best Actress in a Supporting Role), the animated feature Gay Purr-ee (1962), A Child Is Waiting (1963, co-starring Burt Lancaster), and her final film, I Could Go On Singing (1963, co-starring Dirk Bogarde), which mirrored her own life in the story of a world famous singing star.

In November 1959, Garland was diagnosed with acute hepatitis and told that she "would never sing again" [2]. However, Garland successfully recovered and returned to both films and television; her concert appearance at Carnegie Hall on April 23, 1961, was a considerable highlight, called by many "the greatest night in show business history."[6] The 2-record live recording made of the concert was a best-seller (certified gold), charting for 73 weeks on Billboard (13 weeks at number one), and won five Grammy Awards including Album of the Year and Best Female Vocal of the Year. The album has never been out of print.

After hugely successful television specials and guest appearances in the early 1960s, CBS made a $24 million offer to Garland for a weekly television series of her own, The Judy Garland Show, which was deemed at the time in the press to be "the biggest talent deal in TV history." Her television series was critically praised, but, for a variety of reasons–including the fact it was placed in the same time slot opposite Bonanza on NBC–the show lasted only one season, and went off the air in 1964, after 26 episodes. Despite this, the show won four Emmy nominations and included many notable performances by Garland. The demise of the series was personally and financially devastating for Garland, and she never fully recovered from its failure.

[edit] Her final years

With the demise of her television series, Garland returned to the stage and made various television appearances. Most notably, she performed at the London Palladium with her then 18-year-old daughter Liza Minnelli in November of 1964. The concert, which was also filmed for British station ITV, was one of Garland's final appearances at the venue. Garland, having divorced Sid Luft, continued to make concert appearances and also appeared on television specials. She made guest appearances on the The Ed Sullivan Show, The Tonight Show, The Hollywood Palace, The Merv Griffin Show (of which she guest-hosted an episode) and many others.

A 1964 tour of Australia and New Zealand was largely disastrous. Although the reviews for the Sydney concert were positive [3], she could no longer hide the effects of alcohol and medication abuse. She forgot the lyrics to songs, slurred those lines which she remembered, and it was obvious she was ill or under the influence of medication. The Melbourne performance ended after only twenty minutes and created significant bad press for Garland [4].

In February 1967, Garland was signed to appear as "Helen Lawson" in Valley of the Dolls for 20th Century Fox. The character of "Neely O'Hara" in the book by Jacqueline Susann, and subsequent movie, was rumored to have been based on Garland, though the role in the film was played by Patty Duke. During the filming, Garland missed rehearsals and was fired the next month. She was replaced by Susan Hayward. She did record one song for the film, "I'll Plant My Own Tree," which has never been officially released, although it is available on several bootlegs. There is also surviving footage of her wardrobe tests. Barbara Parkins, one of the film's stars, commented in the 2006 DVD of Valley of the Dolls that she believed Garland was frightened by the thought of actually being the aging star she was supposed to play, and that she "freaked" when she realized the similarities between the storyline and her own life.

Returning to the stage, Garland made her last appearances at New York's Palace Theatre in July, a sixteen-show tour, performing with her children Lorna and Joey Luft. Garland wore a sequined pants-suit onstage for this tour, which was part of the original wardrobe for her character in Valley of the Dolls.

By early 1969, Garland's health had deteriorated rapidly. She performed in London, at the Talk of the Town nightclub for a five-week run, and made her last concert appearance in Copenhagen during March 1969.

[edit] Death

The shortcomings of Garland's childhood years became more apparent as she struggled to overcome various personal problems, including weight gain, weight loss, and serious drug addiction. She was found dead in her London home, in her bathroom by her last husband, Mickey Deans, on June 22, 1969. The stated exact cause of death by coroner Gavin Thursdon was accidental overdose of barbiturates; her blood contained the equivalent of 10 1.5-grain Seconal capsules.[7] Garland had turned 47 just over a week prior to her death. She was residing in a rented house with her husband in the Chelsea area of London at the time of her death.

At Garland's funeral, The Wizard of Oz co-star Ray Bolger commented, "She just plain wore out" [8]. Garland is interred in Ferncliff Cemetery, in Hartsdale, New York [5].

[edit] Ancestry

Garland’s family tree [6] can be traced back to the early colonization of the United States (on both her paternal and maternal family lines).

Her earliest paternal ancestor was George Marable (1631 - 1683), who traveled to Virginia from Kent, England, circa 1652 and was one of the first colonists settling in what is now Jamestown, Virginia. The Marable families [7] of the southern United States all derived from the aforementioned George Marable.

By the time of the Civil War, the Marable family of Jamestown, Virginia, had spread across the South. Marables are found in the rosters of units from at least nine of the Confederate States. In Virginia, Edward W. Marable of the Charles City Southern Guard served aboard the Confederate ship Patrick Henry during the engagement of the Merrimack with the Federal fleet at Hampton Roads. John H. Marable of the 13th Virginia Cavalry served as a courier for Gen. J. E. B. Stuart.

Marables have also been found in units from Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, and among the dead at Gettysburg. The Marable family were wealthy southern aristocracy and as such were slave owners. Today, the majority of those bearing the name Marable are descended from emancipated slaves not George Marable.

It is from Benjamin Marable (1710 - 1773), who traveled to Tennessee, that the Gumm family is descended. The Gumm name can also be found in the registers of soldiers who fought for the Confederacy throughout Rutherford County, Tennessee.

Garland's father was Francis Avent Gumm, the fourth of six children born in Murfreesboro, Tennessee on March 20, 1886. He died on November 17, 1935, in Los Angeles, California. His parents were William Tecumseh Gumm (1854 - 1906) and Elizabeth Clemmie Baugh (1857 - 1895). The Gumm family was a mixture of English, Irish, Scottish, French Hugenot and German.

Frank Gumm married Ethel Marian Milne, who was born on November 17, 1893 in Michigamme, Michigan. She died January 5, 1953 in Los Angeles, California. Ethel was the eldest of eight children born to Eva Fitzpatrick (born on January 4, 1865 in Messina, New York) and John Milne (born October 15, 1865 in Ontario Canada). His parents were Charles Milne (born in 1829 in Arbroath Scotland) and Mary Kelso (born 1837 in Kilmarnock Scotland).

Eva Fitzpatrick-Milne was the daughter of Hugh Fitzpatrick (1838 - 1908), whose family arrived in the United States from Smithtown, County Meath, Ireland in the 1770s and Mary-Elizabeth Harriot (born December 23, 1841 in Dublin, Ireland). Mary, one of thousands of orphans as a result of the Irish Famine, was raised in a Dublin convent;[9] . In 1858, at the age of 17, she married Hugh Fitzpatrick (an Irish-American) who was visiting Dublin. That same year, the newlyweds sailed to America. They had ten children. Mary died on January 24, 1908 in Detroit, Michigan. The Fitzpatrick family fought on the side of the British during the Revolutionary War and as a result, Peter Fitzpatrick (1752 - 1812) son of Patrick Fitzpatrick (1727) was sentenced to be hung as a spy, but this was not carried out and the family moved across the border into Canada;[10] (reference: The Golden Years by Rita Piro).

Eva Fitzpatrick-Milne lived with Judy Garland until her death on October 17, 1949 at the age of 84. She is buried with Garland's father in Forest Lawn Cemetery, Glendale CA. Garland's mother is also buried nearby in a separate grave.

A family link between Garland and the 18th United States President Ulysses S Grant has often been incorrectly stated. Garland’s great, great grandfather Hugh Fitzpatrick (1809 - 1878) was married twice; his second wife was Catherine Grant, a first cousin of Grant. However, Garland is descended from a son, also named Hugh (born 1838), from his first wife (Margaret Ross, 1807 - 1845), therefore there is no blood link.

When commenting on her ancestry, Garland described herself as Irish and Scottish and referred to herself during a 1963 press conference as "just an Irish biddy". In her autobiography Lorna Luft states that her family had an "Irish charm" and that "often the family survived on charm alone".[11]

[edit] Honors

[edit] Song of the Century

Garland's rendition of "Over the Rainbow" was placed as number 1 in the Songs of the Century project, by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). According to RIAA, the list was put together for young people to "help further appreciation for the music development process, including songwriting, musicianship, recording, performing, distributing and the development of distribution and cultural values."

The song was also chosen by the American Film Institute as the #1 movie song of all time, as part of their "100 Years...100 Songs" list. Four more Garland songs were also featured on the list: "Have Yourself A Merry Little Christmas" from Meet Me In St. Louis (#76), "Get Happy" from Summer Stock (#61), "The Trolley Song," also from Meet Me In St. Louis (#26), and "The Man That Got Away" from A Star Is Born (#11).

[edit] Grammy Hall of Fame Awards

Several of Garland's many recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame [8]. Some of these include:

  • Dear Mr. Gable (You Made Me Love You) (single) - inducted 1998
  • Judy at Carnegie Hall (album) - inducted 1998
  • Meet Me In St. Louis - Soundtrack (album) - inducted 2005
  • Over the Rainbow (single) - inducted 1981
  • The Wizard of Oz - Musical and Dramatic Selections Recorded Directly from the Soundtrack of MGM's Technicolor Film (album) - inducted 2006

[edit] Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award

Garland was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1998.

[edit] Judy Garland Day

For 31 years, Garland's home state of Minnesota has held a yearly Judy Garland Festival around June 22, in memory of her legacy. The ongoing tribute festival is held at Garland's birthplace of Grand Rapids. At the 2006 occasion, Minnesota proclaimed June 22, as a temporary Minnesota "Judy Garland Day" recognizing and honoring Judy Garland for her dedication and exemplary achievements and to salute her as an outstanding citizen and patron of the Arts. In June 2006, the festival was visited by her children Lorna and Joey Luft.

[edit] 2006 US Postage Stamp Honor

The 2006 commemorative stamp honoring Garland.
The 2006 commemorative stamp honoring Garland.

The United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp honoring Garland in the Legends of Hollywood series.[12] The stamp depicts Garland from the "A Star is Born" era and was painted by illustrator, Tim O'Brien. The first day ceremony for this stamp was on June 10, 2006, on what would have been Garland's 84th birthday, in New York City with nationwide availability on June 12. The ceremony at New York's Carnegie Hall featured her daughter, Lorna Luft, Turner Classic Movies host Robert Osborne, Dick Cavett, Michael Feinstein, Rufus Wainwright, Terrence McNally, and Garland's MGM colleagues Jane Powell and Margaret O'Brien. Garland's daughter Liza Minnelli taped a special greeting exclusively for the ceremony.

[edit] 1989 US Postage Stamp Honor

In 1989, the United States Postal Service issued a series of Classic Films postage stamps, to honor the 50th anniversary of films made in the United States in 1939 that were nominated for Academy Awards. These 25¢ stamps featured four films: The Wizard of Oz, Gone With the Wind, Stagecoach, and Beau Geste. The stamp featuring Garland as "Dorothy", with her dog Toto, is popular among collectors.

[edit] Hollywood Walk of Fame

Judy Garland is one of the few stars to have been recognized on the Hollywood Walk of Fame with two stars; one for her contributions to American motion pictures and one for her contributions as a recording artist.

[edit] The Judy Garland Rose

A new breed of roses was introduced in 1991, dedicated to Garland. As of 2006, the rose is still available.

[edit] Minnesota Music Hall of Fame

Judy Garland was inducted into the Minnesota Music Hall of Fame located in New Ulm, Minnesota in 1991.[9]


[edit] Continuing legacy

Garland's legacy is alive in her two performing daughters and in her two grandchildren: Lorna Luft's son Jesse (1984 - ) and daughter Vanessa (1990 - ).

In the decades following her death, Garland's fame and star power has persisted; resulting in biopics such as Rainbow (1978) and Me and My Shadows: A Family Memoir (2001) (based on her daughter Lorna's memoirs). Garland was portrayed in the former by Andrea McArdle and in the latter by both Tammy Blanchard and Judy Davis (who both won Emmys for their roles).

  • It was reported during the late 1990s that Annette Bening was trying to get a film made about Garland's later years titled "Rainbow's End [10]." However, due to the production of Me and My Shadows, Bening's project never came to fruition.
  • In 1999, Australian born singer - actress Melanie Parry created, produced and performed a one woman musical tribute called Judy, The Judy Garland Story In Song, and recorded an album Melanie Parry sings Judy Garland the same year. The show has been performed in Las Vegas, New Zealand and Australia. Parry continues to tour with the show at home and internationally.
  • In 1999 Garland's daughter Lorna Luft introduced her show "Songs My Mother Taught Me" written by Ken and Mitzi Welch (the Carol Burnette Show). Luft refers to the show as "the most personal and most important show I've ever been part of". The show won the Los Angeles Theatre Alliance Ovation Award. The show is a celebration of Garland, as a mother and as an entertainer and features songs from her films and concerts and family anecdotes performed solo by Luft and by Garland (on screen) with, through the magic of technology, several duets between mother and daughter. Luft continues to perform in the show throughout the USA and has taken it to London in 2005 and to Ireland in 2006.
  • In 2004, Garland was the subject of the Emmy Award-winning two-hour documentary, "Judy Garland: By Myself", which aired as part of the PBS American Masters series. The episode includes rare concert footage (taken from various audience home movie cameras), family home movies, performances from The Judy Garland Show, and audio recollections from friends including Mickey Rooney, Ann Miller and June Allyson (all taken from previous documentaries). Garland's own recollections were voiced by Isabel Keating, who had recently played Garland in the Broadway production of The Boy From Oz.
  • In 2005, singer-actress Linda Eder recorded an album as a tribute to Garland, entitled By Myself: The Songs of Judy Garland. The same year, singer Caroline O'Connor portrayed Garland in the Australian play End of The Rainbow. The play charted the final months of Garland's life and featured some of her most memorable songs. The following year, actress Adrienne Barbeau brought the play to a successful Off-Broadway run, this time under the title The Property Known As Garland. Judy Garland is the subject of O'Connor's fourth studio album, A Tribute to Garland and she is to reprise the role at the 2006 Edinburgh Festival.
  • Also in 2005 the show "Imagine Judy Garland an Evening with Connie Champagne" won the Dean Goodman Award for Oustanding Cabaret show. The show is uniquely promoted as: "songs that Garland never sang but should have". Connie Champagne also starred in the off-Broadway production of Judy's Scary Little Christmas the same year.

[edit] Collectibles and image

Judy Garland’s image has remained popular over the years and has been marketed widely and featured on various collectibles including dolls, limited edition plates, porcelain figurines, toys, clothes, handbags, jewellery, Christmas ornaments, stamps, greeting cards, books, advertisements and art.

The first Judy Garland dolls were introduced in 1939 by Ideal Toy Company, it featured Garland as Dorothy [14], and the second doll was "Judy Garland teenager" [15], issued in 1940. These dolls were promoted by Garland and rivalled Shirley Temple dolls in popularity. From that time Garland has been a popular image for major doll manufactures including Madame Alexander, Effanbee [16], Mattel [17], Franklin Mint [18], World Doll [19], Mary Kay Dolls and Peggy Nesbitt Dolls. These dolls are popular among collectors and the early Ideal dolls can fetch a high price when coming on the market. The materials used for production range from composition (a mixture of sawdust and glue) and human hair wigs (the Ideal dolls), to vinyl and fine porcelain on the modern dolls. During the 1940s, Garland's image was used to endorse Max Factor beauty products [20].

In 1968, she was featured by Blackglama furs in the "What Becomes a Legend Most?" advertising campaign and this image became the basis for artist Andy Warhol's portrait [21]. In 1999 Clinique used Garland's voice singing her famous "Get Happy" to launch the new designer perfume named 'Happy'. In May 2000, a pair of Ruby Slippers worn by Garland in The Wizard of Oz achieved $666,000 when auctioned by Christies [22]. On New Year's 2004 M&M's candies released an advertisement featuring Garland in the final scenes from Oz interacting with the M&M's. [23]. In 2005, the blue and white gingham dress worn by Garland in The Wizard of Oz sold at auction for $252,000 [24] February 2007, her face was used by Heatherette on designer dresses worn by runway models to promote the Fall 2007 collection during Fashion Week [25]

[edit] Image in art

Garland has been the subject of numerous artists such as Andy Warhol, Sueo Serisawa[14] and Norman Rockwell, who painted a portrait of Garland as Dorothy in "The Wizard of Oz" shortly after her death in 1969. This portrait is now in the collection of the Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital (it was reproduced once in the Des Moines Sunday Register on March 15, 1970). Other noted artists to paint Garland include Brooklyn-born artist Roberto Gari whose portrait of her hung in the lobby of New York's Palace Theatre for many years after her death as a tribute to Garland but is now part of the Museum of the City of New York's collection [26]. American caricaturist, Al Hirschfeld produced several black & white caricature images of Garland most notably featuring her image from her signature "Get Happy" number [27] and also from Meet Me in St. Louis. In September 2006, British graffiti artist Banksy featured an image of Garland in his exhibition entitled Barely Legal in Los Angeles [28].

[edit] Photography

Garland was photographed by the leading photographers of the time including Richard Avedon, Francesco Scavullo, Terry O'Neill, George Hurrell [29], Bob Willoughby (who was responsible for her second Life magazine cover in 1954)[30], Milton H. Greene [31], Douglas Kirkland, John Engstead, Roddy MacDowall and Anthony Armstrong Jones among others.

[edit] Song tributes

Garland has received tributes in song:

Garland is also mentioned in the following songs:

Garland's voice was also sampled in the Scissor Sisters song "The Other Side" [32].

[edit] Marriages

Of Garland's five marriages, the first four ended in divorce. Her children are Liza Minnelli(singer and actress) born March 1946, Lorna Luft (also an acclaimed singer), and Joey Luft (a scenic photographer), born March 29, 1955 in Los Angeles, California).

  1. David Rose (1910-1990); married 1941-1945
  2. Vincente Minnelli (1903-1986); married 1945-1952; one daughter, Liza Minnelli
  3. Sidney Luft (1915-2005); married 1952-1965; one daughter, Lorna Luft, and one son, Joey Luft
  4. Mark Herron (1928-1996); married 1965-1967
  5. Mickey Deans (1934-2003); married March 1969-June 1969

[edit] Filmography

Filmography[15]
Film Year Role
The Big Revue 1929 As herself
A Holiday in Storyland 1930 As herself
Bubbles 1930 As herself
Fiesta de Santa Barbara, La 1935 As herself
The Wedding of Jack and Jill 1930 As herself
Every Sunday 1936 Judy
Pigskin Parade 1936 Sairy Dodd
Broadway Melody of 1938 1937 Betty Clayton
Thoroughbreds Don't Cry 1937 Cricket West
MGM Christmas Trailer 1937 As herself
Everybody Sing 1938 Judy Bellaire
Love Finds Andy Hardy 1938 Betsy Booth
Listen, Darling 1938 "Pinkie" Wingate
The Wizard of Oz 1939 Dorothy Gale
Babes in Arms 1939 Patsy Barton
If I Forget You 1940 As herself
Andy Hardy Meets Debutante 1940 Betsy Booth
Strike Up the Band 1940 Mary Holden
Little Nellie Kelly 1940 Nellie Noonan Kelly, Little Nellie Kelly
Meet the Stars #4: Variety Reel #2 1940 As herself
Ziegfeld Girl 1941 Susan Gallagher
Life Begins for Andy Hardy 1941 Betsy Booth
Babes on Broadway 1941 Penny Morris
We Must Have Music 1942 As Herself
For Me and My Gal 1942 Jo Hayden
Strictly G.I. 1943 As herself
Thousands Cheer 1943 As herself
Presenting Lily Mars 1943 Lily Mars
Girl Crazy 1943 Ginger Gray
Meet Me in St. Louis 1944 Esther Smith
The Clock 1945 Alice Mayberry'
The Harvey Girls 1946 Susan Bradley
Ziegfeld Follies 1946 The Star
'Till the Clouds Roll By 1946 Marilyn Miller
Words and Music 1948 As herself
The Pirate 1948 Manuela Ava
Easter Parade 1948 Hannah Brown
Some of The Best 1949 As herself
In the Good Old Summertime 1949 Veronica Fisher
Summer Stock 1950 Jane Falbury
A Star Is Born 1954 Esther Blodgett
Pepe 1960 As herself (voice only; cameo)
Judgement at Nuremberg 1961 Irene Hoffman Wallner
Gay Purr-ee 1962 Mewsette (voice only)
A Child Is Waiting 1963 Jean Hansen
I Could Go On Singing 1963 Jenny Bowman

[edit] Unfinished films

Throughout the latter part of her career, Garland's increasing addiction to prescription drugs led to her being fired from several films:

Garland was also considered to play a part in the following films:

[edit] Legendary concerts

Date Location Important Notes
July 1, 1943 Philadelphia Gives first solo concert at the Robin Hood Dell; Andre Kostelanetz conducts the orchestra.
April 9, 1951 London Garland opens her new show at the London Palladium; the show is performed twice nightly with Wednesday and Saturday matinees.
July 1, 1951 Dublin Performs in Ireland at the Theatre Royal, Dublin for 14 sold-out performances where her show was performed for 50,000 people which was unprecedented for the time. Upon arrival in Dublin, she was met by huge crowds which she sang to from her dressing room window;[16] .
October 16, 1951 New York City The legendary Palace Theater opening - the show runs for 19 weeks and breaks all box office records. She returns from 11/16/51 - 2/24/52.
May 11, 1959 New York City Opens at the Metropolitan Opera House, Lincoln Centre in New York for a 7 night run [33].
October 3 and 5 1960 Paris Palais de Chaillot
October 28 and 29 1960 Paris Concerts at the famed Olympia; the venue is identified with the career of Edith Piaf.
October 1960 Amsterdam The concert is broadcast live on European radio and is considered to be on a par with the Carnegie Hall performance the following year.
April 23, 1961 New York City The legendary concert at Carnegie Hall takes place.
September, 16 1961 Los Angeles, CA Performs at the Hollywood Bowl.
May, 1964 Sydney/Melbourne Perhaps Garland's most unsuccessful tour, and causes much controversy. Her tour in Melbourne lasts only twenty minutes.
November 8 and 15 1964 London Performs at the London Palladium with daughter Liza Minnelli in a one-off event for ITV. The concert is recorded and released as a 2 record album LP set by Capitol Records.
July 31, 1967 New York City Returna to the Palace Theatre for a 4 week sold-out run.
August 31, 1967 Boston Largest audience; over 100,000 people attend her free outdoor concert on the Boston Common.
March 25, 1969 Copenhagen Garland's final concert, at the Falkoner Centre in Copenhagen, Denmark.

[edit] Discography

Although she had recorded scores of singles of her hit songs for Decca Records since the mid-1930s, Garland began recording albums for Capitol Records in the 1950s. Her first album reached number 3 on the Billboard 200 and was very successful. Judy at Carnegie Hall charted for 73 weeks on the Billboard chart (including 13 weeks at number one), was certified gold, and took home five Grammy Awards (including Album of the Year and Best Female Vocal Performance). Many regard Garland's Capitol recordings as her best vocal work. Capitol Records have recently re-released many of the albums on CD and they have proven to be a popular item for many a Garland fan.

  • 1955 Miss Show Business
  • 1956 Judy (album)|Judy
  • 1957 Alone (1957 album)|Alone
  • 1958 Judy In Love
  • 1959 Garland at the Grove
  • 1959 The Letter
  • 1960 Judy: That's Entertainment!
  • 1960 Judy Garland à Paris (released in 1994, re-released in 2005)
  • 1961 Judy at Carnegie Hall
  • 1962 The Garland Touch
  • 1963 I Could Go On Singing (Soundtrack)
  • 1965 Judy Garland and Liza Minnelli 'Live' at the London Palladium(recorded in 1964, released as a 2-LP set by Capitol Records on August 2nd, 1965)
  • 1964 Judy Garland Sings Maggie May (EP)
  • 1967 At Home at the Palace (ABC-Paramount Records)

[edit] Original Songs Introduced

[edit] Compilations

  • 1986 America's Treasure
  • 1987 The Best of Judy Garland
  • 1990 The Best of the Decca Years Volume 1 - Hits!
  • 1991 The Great MGM Stars: Judy Garland
  • 1992 The Last Years 1965 - 1969: It's All for You
  • 1993 Judy Garland - Child of Hollywood (re-released in 2000 as '21 Hollywood Hits'
  • 1993 The Ladies of the 20th Century: Judy Garland
  • 1994 Legends: Judy Garland
  • 1994 The Complete Decca Masters
  • 1995 Great Ladies of Song: Spotlight on Judy Garland
  • 1996 You Made Me Love You
  • 1996 Collectors Gems from the MGM Films
  • 1997 Judy Duets (re-released in 2005)

[edit] Stage

While Garland never appeared on stage as part of any professional theater production, she frequently stated in interviews toward the end of her life she would enjoy appearing in a play. She never completed such a task, but was considered for the following works:

[edit] References

  1. ^ Judy: Beyond the Rainbow, A&E/Biography television special
  2. ^ http://www.jgdb.com/radio35.htm The Judy Garland Database, Judy Garland on Radio - 1935 Listing, Jim Johnson
  3. ^ "Judy Garland: By Myself" in the American Masters series on PBS
  4. ^ Oscar Levant, The Unimportance of Being Oscar, Pocket Books 1969 (reprint of G.P. Putnam 1968), p. 35. ISBN 0-671-77104-3.
  5. ^ 1946-1950 Timelines, The Judy Room (Accessed June 30, 2006)
  6. ^ http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117944197.html?categoryId=1228&cs=1
  7. ^ Thomson, David,Film Studies: She couldn't act for toffee - until she burst into song; The Independent; 2004-06-27; Retrieved on 2007-01-26
  8. ^ End of the rainbow, Time Magazine, 1969
  9. ^ Frank, Gerold, Judy, ISBN 0-306-80894-3
  10. ^ Piro, Rita, Judy Garland: The Golden Years, ISBN 0-9706261-7-7
  11. ^ Luft, Lorna, Me and My Shadows: A Family Memoir, 1998, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-283-06320-3 (1999, Pocket Books paperback edition, ISBN 0-671-01900-7) -->
  12. ^ Press Release, The 2006 Commemorative Stamp Program, November 30, 2005, United States Postal Service
  13. ^ Walsh, Ben, Rufus Wainwright, London Palladium, London; The Independent; 2007-02-20; retrieved on 2007-03-17
  14. ^ Piro, Rita, Judy Garland: The Golden Years, ISBN 0-9706261-7-7
  15. ^ [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000023/ Judy Garland's Listing at the Internet Movie DatabaseIMDB,
  16. ^ Frank, Gerold, Judy, ISBN 0-306-80894-3

[edit] Biographies

  • Judy, Gerold Frank, Harper & Row, 1975
  • Judy: Portrait of an American Legend, Thomas J. Watson and Bill Chapman, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1986
  • Judy, With Love, Lorna Smith, Robert Hale and Co., 1975
  • Judy Garland: A Portrait in Art & Anecdote, John Fricke, Bullfinch, 2003
  • Judy Garland: World's Greatest Entertainer, John Fricke, Henry Holt & Co., 1992
  • Little Girl Lost: The Life and Hard Times of Judy Garland, Al DiOrio, Jr., Arlington House, 1973
  • Me and My Shadows: A Family Memoir, Lorna Luft, Simon and Schuster, 1988
  • Rainbow: The Stormy Life of Judy Garland, Christopher Finch, Ballantine, 1976
  • Rainbow's End: The Judy Garland Show, Coyne Steven Sanders, William Morrow & Co., 1990
  • Young Judy, David Dahl and Barry Kehoe, Mason/Charter, 1975
  • Judy Garland, The Golden Years, Rito Piro, Great Feats Press, 2001
  • Some Are Born Great , Adela Rogers St. Johns 1974 New York, Doubleday & Company, Inc., (includes chapter on Garland)
  • Get Happy (2003) By Gerald Clarke
  • Judy Garland, The Secret Life of a Legend , David Shipman, Little Brown and Company, 1993
  • Weep No More My Lady , Mickey Deans and Ann Pinchot, GK Hall, 1972
  • The Otherside of the Rainbow, On the Dawn Patrol With Judy Garland , Mel Torme, Award Books, 1976
  • Heartbreaker , John Meyer, Doubleday, 1983 and Citadel, 2006
  • Judy Garland : The Day-by-Day Chronicle of a Legend Scott Schechter (Hardcover) Cooper Square Press / Rowman-Littlefield 2002

[edit] Further reading

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • Judy: The Complete Films and Career of Judy Garland, Joe Morella and Edward Epstein, Citadel Press, 1969
  • The Judy Garland Collector's Guide: An Unauthorized Reference and Price Guide, Edward R. Pardella, Schiffer Publishing, 1999
  • The Judy Garland Souvenir Songbook, Howard Harnne, Chappel & Co./Hal Leonard Publishing, 1975
  • The Wizard of Oz: The Official 50th Anniversary Pictorial History, John Fricke, Jay Scarfone and William Stillman, Warner Books, 1989
  • Judy Garland and the Cold War, James Simmons, Blackstaff Press, Belfast, 1976 ISBN 0-85640-106-4, Book of poetry; includes two poems about Judy: "In Memoriam: Judy Garland" and "Judy Garland and the Cold War".
  • The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America, Michael Glazier, University of Notre Dame Press , 1999, ISBN 0-268-02755-2 contains information on Garland's family.
  • Still Irish: a Century of Irish in film, Kevin Rockett and Eugene Finn, Dublin Red Mountain Press, 1995 ISBN 1-900361-00-0. contains analysis of Garland's impact and persona as well as many photographs during her Hollywood career.
  • Women of Our Time: An Album of Twentieth-Century Photographs]], Frederick Voss (Editor), National Portrait Gallery (Smithsonian Institution) ISBN 1-85894-169-5.
  • The ARSC Journal, Lawrence Schulman, Vol. 25 No. 2 (Fall 1994), Vol. 26 No. 2 (Fall 1995), Vol. 31 No. 1 (Spring 2000), Vol 32 No. 1 (Spring 2001), Vol. 34 No. 1 (Spring 2003) for extensive sound recording reviews
  • The Liza Minnelli Scrapbook," Scott Schechter, 2004 (Softcover / Paperback), Citadel Press / Kensington Publishing Corp. contains pictures and info on Garland.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links