Iowa

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State of Iowa
Flag of Iowa State seal of Iowa
Flag of Iowa Seal of Iowa
Nickname(s): The Hawkeye State, The Tall Corn State
Motto(s): Our liberties we prize and our rights
we will maintain
Map of the United States with Iowa highlighted
Official language(s) English
Capital Des Moines
Largest city Des Moines
Area  Ranked 26th
 - Total 56,272 sq mi
(145,743 km²)
 - Width 199 miles (320 km)
 - Length 310 miles (500 km)
 - % water 0.71
 - Latitude 40°36'N to 43°30'N
 - Longitude 89°5'W to 96°31'W
Population  Ranked 30th
 - Total (2000) 2,926,324
 - Density 52.4/sq mi 
20.22/km² (33rd)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Hawkeye Point[1]
1,670 ft  (509 m)
 - Mean 1,099 ft  (335 m)
 - Lowest point Mississippi River[1]
480 ft  (146 m)
Admission to Union  December 28, 1846 (29th)
Governor Chet Culver (D)
U.S. Senators Chuck Grassley (R)
Tom Harkin (D)
Time zone Central: UTC-6/DST-5
Abbreviations US-IA
Web site www.iowa.gov

Iowa (pronounced [ˈaɪəwə]) is a Midwest state of the United States. It is the 29th state of the United States, having joined the Union on December 28, 1846. The official name of the state is the "State of Iowa". The state is named for the Native American Iowa people. It is known as the "Hawkeye State" or the "Corn State".

Contents

[edit] Geography

Iowa is bordered by Minnesota on the north; Nebraska and South Dakota on the west; Missouri on the south; and Wisconsin and Illinois on the east.

The Mississippi River forms the eastern boundary of the state. The boundary along the west is formed by the Missouri River south of Sioux City and by the Big Sioux River north of Sioux City. There are several natural lakes in the state, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, and East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa (see Iowa Great Lakes). Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa[1], Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake McBride and Rathbun Lake.

The topography of the state is gently rolling plains. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state. Some of these are several hundred feet thick. In the northeast, along the Mississippi River, is a section of the Driftless Zone, which in Iowa consists of low rugged hills covered with conifers—a landscape not usually associated with this state.

The point of lowest elevation is Keokuk in southeastern Iowa, at 480 feet (146 m). The point of highest elevation, at 1,670 feet (509 m), is Hawkeye Point, located in a feedlot north of Sibley in northwest Iowa. The mean elevation of the state is 1,099 feet (335 m). Considering the size of the state at 56,271 square miles (145,743 km²), there is very little elevation difference.

Iowa has 99 counties. The state capital, Des Moines, is located in Polk County (#60).

Iowa has the highest average radon concentrations in the nation due to significant glaciation that ground the granitic rocks from the Canadian Shield and deposited it as soils making up the rich Iowa farmaland http://www.cheec.uiowa.edu/misc/radon.html. Because of the high surface area of the ground rock, radon is free to off-gas from the soils. Many cities within the state, such as Iowa City have passed requirements for radon resistant construction in all new homes.

Areas controlled and protected by the National Park Service include:

See List of counties in Iowa, List of cities in Iowa, List of townships in Iowa and List of Iowa rivers

[edit] Climate

Iowa experiences a continental climate with extremes of both heat and cold. The average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50.0 °F (10.0 °C); for some locations in the north the figure is under 45 °F, while Keokuk, on the Mississippi River, averages 52.1 °F. Winters are brisk and snowfall is common, the capital (Des Moines) receiving an average of 36.3 inches per season. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season, as well as bringing increased precipitation and warming temperatures. The Iowan summer is known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes exceeding 100 °F (37.8 °C).

Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year.[2] Some of these thunderstorms can be severe with high winds and hail. The state has a moderately high risk of tornadic activity with, on average, 37 tornadoes per year.[3]

[edit] History

Main article: History of Iowa.

Highlights:

  • The first Europeans to explore Iowa were French citizens following the Sac and Fox, presently known as the Mesquakie (Meskwaki) Indians.
  • At first, due to a lack of trees, Iowa was believed to not be able to support agriculture. *Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette are believed to be the first European explorers to visit Iowa. They described Iowa as lush, green, and fertile.
  • Iowa has been home to approximately 17 different Native American tribes. Today, only the Meskwaki tribe remains.
  • The first American settlers officially moved to Iowa in June 1833. Primarily, they were families from Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri.
  • During the 1835 Dragoon expedition to map and survey central Iowa, many dragoons got lost in prairie grass which was over their heads even on horseback. The map maker was Albert Lea, who is the namesake for Albert Lea, Minnesota. One of the commanders was Nathan Boone, the youngest son of Daniel Boone.
  • Iowa became the 29th state in the union on December 28, 1846.
  • The Chicago and North Western Railway reached Council Bluffs in 1867. Council Bluffs was designated the eastern terminus for the Union Pacific Railroad. The completion of five major railroads across Iowa brought major economic changes as well as travel opportunities.
  • During the American Civil War, more than 75,000 Iowans participated in the war, 13,001 of whom died (mostly by disease). Iowa had a higher percentage of soldiers serve in the Civil War, per capita, than any other state in the Union, with nearly 60% of eligible males serving. Among many cases in point would be Isaac S. Struble of Plymouth County, Congressman from 1883-1891.
  • Iowa saw a large increase in farming of beef, corn, and pork during World War I, but farmers saw economic hardships after the war. These hardships were the result of the removal of war-time farm subsidies. Total recovery did not occur until the 1940s.
  • The Farm Crisis of the 1980s saw a major decline of family farms in Iowa and around the Midwest, and it was marked by a sharp drop in the state's rural population.
  • Although Iowa's primary industry is agriculture, it also produces refrigerators, washing machines, fountain pens, farm implements, toothbrushes, and food products that are shipped around the world.
  • Iowa is also a major producer of ethanol and biodiesel.
  • Iowa has the 3rd largest wind power economy, after California and Texas.

[edit] References

  • Bergman, Marvin, ed. Iowa History Reader (1996) essays by scholars.
  • Ross, Earl D. Iowa Agriculture: An Historical Survey (1951)
  • Sage, Leland. A History of Iowa (1974)
  • Schwieder, Dorothy. Iowa: The Middle Land (1996) excellent scholarly history
  • Wall, Joseph Frazier. Iowa: A Bicentennial History (1978)

[edit] Statehood

The original boundaries of Iowa proposed during statehood proceedings were different from those of today. The first design was approximately pentagonal in shape and only slightly smaller than Missouri. Iowa was to be bounded to the northwest by the lower Minnesota River and a line drawn from confluence of the Blue Earth River and Minnesota River southwest to the mouth of the Big Sioux River.

This design was accepted by the Congressional Committee on Territories but met resistance in the House. The implications of adding Texas to the Union was driving Northern interests toward the creation of smaller states in the northwestern territories so as to leave the possibility of creating more states in the future. To that end, Iowa's proposed boundaries were reduced significantly. The southern boundary would remain that of Missouri (itself the subject of the Honey Lands dispute). The eastern boundary would remain that of the Mississippi River. The western boundary was to be essentially a northern continuation of Missouri's western boundary (the meridian passing through the mouth of the Kansas River). Iowa's northern boundary was to be the line of latitude passing through the confluence of the Minnesota and Blue Earth rivers.

This much reduced version of Iowa was accepted by Congress but rejected by the people of Iowa — the first time a proposed state was rejected by its people. The main grievance voiced was the loss of the so-called Missouri Slope, the western part of Iowa that reaches the Missouri River. During the next session of Congress a compromise was reached and agreed upon, giving Iowa the shape it has today with its northern boundary at latitude 43° 30' and its western boundary along the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers. Ten years after statehood, Iowa attempted unsuccessfully to add a tract of land to the northwest, similar to Missouri's successful addition of the Platte Purchase. The proposed addition was the land between a western continuation of Iowa's northern boundary and the Missouri River, the southeast part of what would become South Dakota.[4]

[edit] Demographics

Iowa Population Density Map
Iowa Population Density Map
Historical populations
Census Pop.
1840 43,112
1850 192,214 345.8%
1860 674,913 251.1%
1870 1,194,020 76.9%
1880 1,624,615 36.1%
1890 1,912,297 17.7%
1900 2,231,853 16.7%
1910 2,224,771 -0.3%
1920 2,404,021 8.1%
1930 2,470,939 2.8%
1940 2,538,268 2.7%
1950 2,621,073 3.3%
1960 2,757,537 5.2%
1970 2,824,376 2.4%
1980 2,913,808 3.2%
1990 2,776,755 -4.7%
2000 2,926,324 5.4%

As of 2005, Iowa has an estimated population of 2,966,334, which is an increase of 13,430, or 0.5%, from the prior year and an increase of 39,952, or 1.4%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 53,706 people (that is 197,163 births minus 143,457 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 11,754 people out of the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 29,386 people, while migration within the country produced a net loss of 41,140 people.

The center of population of Iowa is located in Marshall County, in the city of Marshalltown [2].

Demographics of Iowa (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native   -   NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 96.14% 2.51% 0.63% 1.48% 0.08%
2000 (Hispanic only) 2.68% 0.08% 0.08% 0.03% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 95.79% 2.79% 0.61% 1.67% 0.08%
2005 (Hispanic only) 3.48% 0.13% 0.09% 0.03% 0.01%
Growth 2000-2005 (total population) 1.01% 12.55% -2.70% 14.41% 1.01%
Growth 2000-2005 (non-Hispanic only) 0.12% 11.13% -5.68% 14.14% 0.05%
Growth 2000-2005 (Hispanic only) 31.91% 53.85% 19.33% 29.51% 7.14%

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2004, Iowa's population included about 97,000 foreign-born (3.3%).

Iowans are mostly of Northern European origin. The eight largest ancestry groups in Iowa are: German (35.7%), Irish (13.5%), English (9.5%), American (6.6%), Norwegian (5.7%), Dutch (4.6%), Swedish (3.3%) and Danish (3.2%)

6.4% of Iowa's population were reported as under the age of five, 25.1% under 18, and 14.9% were 65 or older. Males made up approximately 49.1% of the population.

[edit] Rural flight

Iowa, in common with other Midwestern states (especially Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, North and South Dakota), is feeling the brunt of falling populations. 89% of the total number of cities in those states have fewer than 3,000 people; hundreds have fewer than 1,000. Between 1996 and 2004, almost half a million people, nearly half with college degrees, left the six states. "Rural flight", as it is called, has led to offers of free land and tax breaks as enticements to newcomers.

[edit] Religion

Most Iowans are Protestant Christians, with Lutheranism being the largest single Protestant denomination, followed by Methodist. The state has the second largest population of Reformed Christians, both RCA and CRC.

The religious affiliations of the people of Iowa are:

[3]*Christian – 75%

[edit] Economy

The state's total gross state product for 2003 was US$103 billion. Its per capita income for 2003 was US$28,340. Iowa's main agricultural outputs are hogs, corn, soybeans, oats, cattle and dairy products. Its industrial outputs are food processing, machinery, electric equipment, chemical products, publishing and primary metals. Iowa produces the nation's largest amount of ethanol. Des Moines also serves as a center for the insurance industry.

Iowa imposes taxes on net state income of individuals and estates and trusts. There are currently nine income tax brackets, ranging from 0.36% to 8.98%. The state sales tax rate is 5%.[5] Iowa has two local option sales taxes that may be imposed by counties after an election at which the majority of voters favors the tax. They are in addition to the 5% state sales tax. The regular local option tax is imposed on the gross receipts from sales of tangible personal property. It usually remains in effect until it is repealed, but the ordinance may include a sunset clause. The school infrastructure local option tax is automatically repealed 10 years after it is imposed, unless the ballot imposes a shorter time frame.[5]

Property tax is levied on the taxable value of real property, that is, mostly land, buildings, structures, and other improvements that are constructed on or in the land, attached to the land or placed upon a foundation. Typical improvements include a building, house or mobile home, fences, and paving. The following five classes of real property are evaluated: residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial and utilities/railroad (which is assessed at the state level). Homeowners pay less than half of the property tax collected each year in Iowa. Farmers pay 21%, and businesses and industry, a total of 23%. Utility companies, including railroads, pay 10%. Iowa has more than 2,000 taxing authorities. Most property is taxed by more than one taxing authority. The tax rate differs in each locality and is a composite of county, city or rural township, school district and special levies.

[edit] Transportation

[edit] Interstate highways

These are ten interstate highways that go through Iowa:

[edit] US highways

These are 20 United States highways that go through Iowa:

[edit] Airports with scheduled flights

[edit] Law and government

The current Governor is Chet Culver (D)

Other statewide elected officials are:

  • Patty Judge (D) - Lieutenant Governor
  • Michael Mauro (D) - Secretary of State
  • David Vaudt (R) - Auditor of State
  • Michael Fitzgerald (D) - Treasurer of State
  • Bill Northey (R) - Secretary of Agriculture
  • Tom Miller (D) - Attorney General

The two U.S. Senators:

The five U.S. Congressmen:

The Code of Iowa contains the statutory laws of the State of Iowa. The Iowa Legislative Service Bureau is a non-partisan governmental agency that is responsible for organizing, updating and publishing the Iowa Code. The Iowa Code is republished in full in odd years (i.e., 1999, 2001, 2003, etc..) and is supplemented in even years.

Iowa has a liberal populist tradition, but now is fairly evenly divided between the two major political parties.

Iowa supported Bill Clinton in 1992 and in 1996.

In 2004, George W. Bush won re-election by less than a majority of votes (49.9%).

By 2006, Iowa had leaned Democratic and two Republican seats switched parties to the Democrats.

Iowa is an alcohol monopoly or Alcoholic beverage control state.

See List of Governors of Iowa, Iowa General Assembly, and Iowa State Capitol

[edit] Iowa Presidential caucus

The state gets considerable attention every four years because it holds the first presidential caucus, a gathering of voters to select delegates to the state convention. Along with the New Hampshire primary a week later, it has become the starting gun for choosing the two major-party candidates for president. The caucus, held in January of the election year, involves people gathering in homes or public places and choosing their candidate, rather than casting secret ballots, as is done in a primary election. The national and international media give Iowa (and New Hampshire) about half of all the attention accorded the national candidate selection process, which gives the voters enormous leverage. Some candidates decide to skip the Iowa caucus, especially those who oppose ethanol subsidies, and use their resources in other early states such as New Hampshire and South Carolina. Those who enter the caucus race often expend enormous effort to reach voters in each of Iowa's 99 counties.

[edit] U.S. senators from Iowa

Survey post defining the northeastern corner of Iowa, placed in 1849.
Survey post defining the northeastern corner of Iowa, placed in 1849.

List of United States Senators who have represented Iowa:

Seat 1
Senator Took Office Left Office Party
Chuck Grassley 1981 present Republican
John Culver 1975 1981 Democrat
Harold E. Hughes 1969 1975 Democrat
Bourke B. Hickenlooper 1945 1969 Republican
Guy M. Gillette 1936 1945 Democrat
Richard Louis Murphy 1933 1936 Democrat
Smith W. Brookhart 1927 1933 Republican
David W. Stewart 1926 1927 Republican
Albert B. Cummins 1908 1926 Republican
William B. Allison 1873 1908 Republican
James Harlan 1867 1873 Republican
Samuel J. Kirkwood 1865 1867 Republican
James Harlan 1855 1865 Free Soil and
Republican
Augustus C. Dodge 1848 1855 Democrat
Capitol in 2003 after regilding
Capitol in 2003 after regilding
Seat 2
Senator Took Office Left Office Party
Tom Harkin 1985 present Democrat
Roger Jepsen 1979 1985 Republican
Dick Clark 1973 1979 Democrat
Jack R. Miller 1961 1973 Republican
Thomas E. Martin 1955 1961 Republican
Guy M. Gillette 1949 1955 Democrat
George A. Wilson 1943 1949 Republican
Clyde L. Herring 1937 1943 Democrat
L.J. Dickinson 1931 1937 Republican
Daniel F. Steck 1926 1931 Democrat
Smith W. Brookhart 1922 1926 Republican
Charles A. Rawson 1922 1922 Democrat
William S. Kenyon 1911 1922 Republican
Lafayette Young 1910 1911 Democrat
Jonathan P. Dolliver 1900 1910 Republican
John H. Gear 1895 1900 Republican
James F. Wilson 1883 1895 Republican
James W. McDill 1881 1883 Republican
Samuel J. Kirkwood 1877 1881 Republican
George G. Wright 1871 1877 Republican
James B. Howell 1870 1871 Republican
James W. Grimes 1859 1869 Republican
George W. Jones 1848 1859 Democrat

[edit] Important cities and towns

Population figures are given in parentheses and are based on 2005 estimates,[6] except for those marked with *, which are special census figures from 2005. Metropolitan Statistical Area figures are 2006 estimates.[7]

[edit] Education

Iowa has historically placed a strong emphasis on education, which is shown in standardized testing scores. In 2003, Iowa had the second highest average SAT scores by state, and tied for second highest average ACT scores in states where more than 20% of graduates were tested. The national office of ACT is in Iowa City, and the ITBS and ITED testing programs used in many states are provided by the University of Iowa.

An overhaul of the current education system is being discussed. One of the suggested ideas is switching from 180 days to a year-round school system. [4]

[edit] State universities

[edit] Independent colleges and universities

[edit] Community colleges

[edit] Professional business and technical colleges and universities

[edit] Libraries

[edit] Public Libraries

[edit] Sports

The Minor League baseball teams are:

The Minor League hockey teams are:

Real Pro Wrestling

  • Iowa Stalkers

The Minor League soccer teams are:

[edit] Art

[edit] Miscellaneous topics

[edit] Famous Iowans

The following is an alphabetical list of famous people born in Iowa (who don't necessarily live in Iowa) as well as famous Iowans in general.

(Gable, Dan) Olympic Gold Metalist in Wrestling and Famous Wrestling Coach for the University of Iowa, Born in Waterloo, Iowa.

Name Occupation Description
Tom Arnold Film actor Born in Ottumwa on 6 March 1959.
Leon "Bix" Beiderbecke Jazz cornet player Born in Davenport 1903-1931.
Buffalo Bill Buffalo Hunter; Entertainer; Pony Express Rider Born William Frederick Cody near Le Claire on February 26, 1846.
Billy Aaron Brown Played Kyle in ABC sitcom 8 Simple Rules Born in Clarinda, Iowa in 1981.
Bill Bryson Popular writer of travel books Born in Des Moines in 1951.
Norman Ernest Borlaug Nobel Peace Prize laureate Born near Cresco on March 25, 1914.
Johnny Carson Comedian Born in Corning on 23 October 1925.
Christian Clemenson American Actor Born in Humboldt, Iowa on November 11, 1959
Mamie Eisenhower Wife of President Dwight D. Eisenhower Born in Boone in 1896.
Michael Emerson Actor, plays Benjamin Linus in ABC series Lost Born in Cedar Rapids on September 7, 1954.
Bob Feller Major League Baseball Player; Hall of Famer Pitched 3 no-hitters for the Cleveland Indians, Born near Van Meter on November 3, 1918.
George Gallup American statistician; inventor of the Gallup poll Born in Jefferson in 1901.
Frank Gotch Professional wrestler; world heavyweight champion Born south of Humboldt in 1878.
Chad Hennings American football player and US Air Force officer Born in Elberon on October 20, 1965.
Kirk Hinrich NBA basketball player Born in Sioux City on January 2, 1981
Herbert Hoover 31st President of the United States Born in West Branch in 1874. He is also buried there.
Lou Henry Hoover Wife of President Herbert Hoover Born in Waterloo, Iowa.
Ashton Kutcher Film and television actor Born in Cedar Rapids on February 7, 1978.
William D. Leahy Five star admiral Born in Hampton on May 6, 1875.
Ron Livingston Film and television actor Born in Cedar Rapids on June 5, 1968.
Frederick L. Maytag Maytag founder Lived his childhood years near Laurel.
Robert Millikan Physicist Measured the charge of the electron, spent part of his childhood in Maquoketa.
Glenn Miller Musician Born in Clarinda (1904)]
Kate Mulgrew Actress A film and television actress born in Dubuque, Iowa on April 29, 1955.
Charles Murray American policy writer Best known for being the co-author of the controversial best seller, The Bell Curve. Born in Newton, Iowa on January 8, 1943.
Nancy Price Author of Sleeping with the Enemy Former Professor at the University of Northern Iowa in Cedar Falls, Iowa.
Harry Reasoner Journalist Born 17 Apr 1923 at Dakota City, Iowa
Donna Reed Actress Born as Donna Belle Mullenger January 27, 1921 on a farm near Denison, Iowa
George Reeves Actor Born January 5, 1914, best known for playing the role of Superman on the television series in the 1950s.
Reggie Roby NFL Punter Born in Waterloo played college football at University of Iowa.
Sage Rosenfels NFL quarterback Born in Maquoketa in 1978 and played college football at Iowa State University.
Brandon Routh Film and television actor Born in Des Moines on October 09, 1979
Slipknot Alternative metal/nu metal band Formed in Des Moines.
Tracie Spencer Female R&B Vocalist Born in Waterloo.
Mark Steines Co-host of Entertainment Tonight Alumnus of the University of Northern Iowa in Cedar Falls, Iowa.
Bill Stewart (musician) Accomplished American jazz drummer Born and raised in Des Moines, Iowa.
Sullivan brothers Deaths brought about the military's Sole Survivor Policy Died together on the USS Juneau during the Battle of Guadalcanal, were born in Waterloo.
Billy Sunday a professional baseball player; evangelist Born in Bina in 1862 and lived in Glenwood, Nevada, and Ames.
Corey Taylor Lead vocalist of the bands Slipknot and Stone Sour Born on December 8, 1973 and formed Slipknot in 1995.
James Van Allen Scientist Born in Mount Pleasant in 1914.
Michelle Vieth Mexican soap actress Born in Marshalltown on November 19, 1979. Now lives in Mexico.
Henry A. Wallace 33rd Vice President of the United States Born in Orient, Iowa in 1888; died in Danbury, Connecticut in 1965
Robert James Waller Author of The Bridges of Madison County Former Professor of Business at the University of Northern Iowa in Cedar Falls, Iowa.
Brian Wansink Author of Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think Born in 1960 in Sioux City, Iowa and alumnus of Drake University (M.A.). Professor at Cornell University.
Grant Wood Artist Known mostly for his painting American Gothic, was born in Anamosa on 13 February 1891.
Wright Brothers Lived for a short time in Cedar Rapids while their father was posted there as a bishop with the Church of the United Brethren in Christ.
Kurt Warner American football player Born in 1971 in Burlington. Alumnus of the University of Northern Iowa.
John Wayne Film actor Born as Marion Morrison in Winterset in 1907.
Meredith Willson Broadway composer/lyricist: The Music Man, The Unsinkable Molly Brown, Here's Love Born on May 18 1902 in Mason City. The Music Man is based partly on Willson's own childhood and is his tribute to the State of Iowa.
Elijah Wood Film actor Born in Cedar Rapids on January 28, 1981.
Ed Yost Inventor of the modern hot air balloon Born in Bristow in 1919.
Andy Williams American Pop Singer [Moon River, 1962] Born in Wall Lake in 1927.
Joey Jordison American Drummer of Slipknot and Guitarist of Murderdolls Born in Des Moines in 1975.

[edit] Animals

Some of the wild animals that can be found in Iowa:

[edit] State symbols

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 6, 2006.
  2. ^ US Thunderstorm distribution. src.noaa.gov. Last accessed November 1, 2006.
  3. ^ Mean Annual Annual Average Number of Tornadoes 1953-2004. ncdc.noaa.gov. Last accessed November 1, 2006.
  4. ^ This section on statehood from pages 437-438 of Meinig, D.W. (1993). The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History, Volume 2: Continental America, 1800-1867. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05658-3
  5. ^ a b Iowa Department of Revenue Local Option. Retrieved on June 5, 2006.
  6. ^ Iowa Data Center. Population and Numerical and Percent Change for Iowa's Incorporated Places: 2000-2005. Retrieved on April 6, 2007.
  7. ^ Iowa Data Center. Population Estimates and Components of Population Change for Iowa's Metropolitan Areas (2003 Definition): 2000-2006. Retrieved on April 6, 2007.
  8. ^ a b c d e Iowa General Assembly - Iowa State Symbols. www.legis.state.ia.us. Retrieved on November 24, 2006.
  9. ^ New Citizen Civic Handbook, page 44. sos.state.ia.us (2006). Retrieved on December 26, 2006.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

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Flag of Iowa
State of Iowa
Des Moines (capital)
Regions

Coteau des Prairies | Coulee Region | Des Moines metropolitan area | Great River Road | Iowa Great Lakes | Loess Hills | Omaha‑Council Bluffs metropolitan area | Quad Cities | Siouxland |

Largest cities

Ames | Ankeny | Bettendorf | Burlington | Cedar Falls | Cedar Rapids | Clinton | Council Bluffs | Davenport | Des Moines | Dubuque | Fort Dodge | Iowa City | Marion | Marshalltown | Mason City | Muscatine | Ottumwa | Sioux City | Urbandale | Waterloo | West Des Moines

Counties

Adair | Adams | Allamakee | Appanoose | Audubon | Benton | Black Hawk | Boone | Bremer | Buchanan | Buena Vista | Butler | Calhoun | Carroll | Cass | Cedar | Cerro Gordo | Cherokee | Chickasaw | Clarke | Clay | Clayton | Clinton | Crawford | Dallas | Davis | Decatur | Delaware | Des Moines | Dickinson | Dubuque | Emmet | Fayette | Floyd | Franklin | Fremont | Greene | Grundy | Guthrie | Hamilton | Hancock | Hardin | Harrison | Henry | Howard | Humboldt | Ida | Iowa | Jackson | Jasper | Jefferson | Johnson | Jones | Keokuk | Kossuth | Lee | Linn | Louisa | Lucas | Lyon | Madison | Mahaska | Marion | Marshall | Mills | Mitchell | Monona | Monroe | Montgomery | Muscatine | O'Brien | Osceola | Page | Palo Alto | Plymouth | Pocahontas | Polk | Pottawattamie | Poweshiek | Ringgold | Sac | Scott | Shelby | Sioux | Story | Tama | Taylor | Union | Van Buren | Wapello | Warren | Washington | Wayne | Webster | Winnebago | Winneshiek | Woodbury | Worth | Wright


Coordinates: 42° N 93° W