# History of mathematics

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*See timeline of mathematics for a timeline of events in mathematics. See list of mathematicians for a list of biographies of mathematicians.*

The word "mathematics" comes from the Greek μάθημα (*máthema*) which means "science, knowledge, or learning"; μαθηματικός (*mathematikós*) means "fond of learning". Today, the term refers to a specific body of knowledge -- the deductive study of quantity, structure, space and change.

Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments come to light only in a few locales. The most ancient mathematical texts available are from ancient India circa 1500BC-500 BC (Rigveda - *Sulba Sutras*) and ancient Egypt in the Middle Kingdom period circa 1300-1200 BC (*Berlin 6619*), Mesopotamia circa 1800 BC (*Plimpton 322*). All of these texts concern the so-called Pythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry. The Han Dynasty in ancient China contributed the *Sea Island Manual* and *The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art* from the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD. Ancient Greece and the Hellenistic cultures of Egypt, Mesopotamia and the city of Syracuse increased mathematical knowledge. Jain mathematicians contributed from the 4th century BC to the 2nd century AD, while Hindu mathematicians from the 5th century and Islamic mathematicians from the 9th century made major contributions to mathematics.

One striking feature of the history of ancient and medieval mathematics is that bursts of mathematical development were often followed by centuries of stagnation. Beginning in Renaissance Italy in the 16th century, new mathematical developments, interacting with new scientific discoveries, were made at an ever increasing pace, and this continues to the present day.

## [edit] Early mathematics

Long before the earliest written records, there are drawings that indicate a knowledge of mathematics and of measurement of time based on the stars. For example, paleontologists have discovered ochre rocks in a cave in South Africa adorned with scratched geometric patterns dating back to c. 70,000 BC.^{[1]} Also prehistoric artifacts discovered in Africa and France, dated between 35,000 BC and 20,000 BC,^{[2]} indicate early attempts to quantify time.^{[3]}

Evidence exists that early counting involved women who kept records of their monthly biological cycles; twenty-eight, twenty-nine, or thirty scratches on bone or stone, followed by a distinctive scratching on the bone or stone, for example. Moreover, hunters had the concepts of *one*, *two*, and *many*, as well as the idea of *none* or *zero*, when considering herds of animals.^{[4]}^{[5]}

The Ishango Bone, found in the area of the headwaters of the Nile River (northeastern Congo), dates as early as 20,000 BC. One common interpretation is that the bone is the earliest known demonstration^{[6]} of sequences of prime numbers and Ancient Egyptian multiplication. Predynastic Egyptians of the 5th millennium BC pictorially represented geometric spatial designs. It has been claimed that Megalithic monuments in England and Scotland from the 3rd millennium BC, incorporate geometric ideas such as circles, ellipses, and Pythagorean triples in their design.^{[7]} From circa 3100 BC, Egyptians introduced the earliest known decimal system,^{[citations needed]} allowing indefinite counting by way of introducing new symbols. Circa 2600 BC, Egypt's massive construction techniques represent not only precision surveying but also suggest knowledge of the golden ratio.^{[citations needed]}

The earliest known mathematics in ancient India dates back to circa 3000-2600 BC in the Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan civilization) of North India and Pakistan, which developed a system of uniform weights and measures that used the decimal system, a surprisingly advanced brick technology which utilised ratios, streets laid out in perfect right angles, and a number of geometrical shapes and designs, including cuboids, barrels, cones, cylinders, and drawings of concentric and intersecting circles and triangles. Mathematical instruments discovered include an accurate decimal ruler with small and precise subdivisions, a shell instrument that served as a compass to measure angles on plane surfaces or in horizon in multiples of 40–360 degrees, a shell instrument used to measure 8–12 whole sections of the horizon and sky, and an instrument for measuring the positions of stars for navigational purposes. The Indus script has not yet been deciphered; hence very little is known about the written forms of Harappan mathematics. Archeological evidence has led some historians to believe that this civilization used a base 8 numeral system and possessed knowledge of the ratio of the length of the circumference of the circle to its diameter, thus a value of π.^{[8]}

## [edit] Ancient Egyptian mathematics (c. 1850—600 BC)

Egyptian mathematics refers to mathematics written in the Egyptian language. From the Hellenistic period, Greek replaced Egyptian as the written language of Egyptian scholars, and from this point Egyptian mathematics merged with Greek and Babylonian mathematics to give rise to Hellenistic mathematics. Mathematical study in Egypt later continued under the Islamic Caliphate as part of Islamic mathematics, when Arabic became the written language of Egyptian scholars.

The oldest mathematical text discovered so far is the Moscow papyrus, which is an Egyptian Middle Kingdom papyrus dated c. 2000—1800 BC.^{[citations needed]} Like many ancient mathematical texts, it consists of what are today called "word problems" or "story problems", which were apparently intended as entertainment. One problem is considered to be of particular importance because it gives a method for finding the volume of a frustum: "If you are told: A truncated pyramid of 6 for the vertical height by 4 on the base by 2 on the top. You are to square this 4, result 16. You are to double 4, result 8. You are to square 2, result 4. You are to add the 16, the 8, and the 4, result 28. You are to take one third of 6, result 2. Your are to take 28 twice, result 56. See, it is 56. You will find it right."

The Rhind papyrus (c. 1650 BC [1]) is another major Egyptian mathematical text, an instruction manual in arithmetic and geometry. In addition to giving area formulas and methods for multiplication, division and working with unit fractions, it also contains evidence of other mathematical knowledge (see [2]), including composite and prime numbers; arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means; and simplistic understandings of both the Sieve of Eratosthenes and perfect number theory (namely, that of the number 6)[3]. It also shows how to solve first order linear equations [4] as well as arithmetic and geometric series [5].

Also, three geometric elements contained in the Rhind papyrus suggest the simplest of underpinnings to analytical geometry: (1) first and foremost, how to obtain an approximation of π accurate to within less than one percent; (2) second, an ancient attempt at squaring the circle; and (3) third, the earliest known use of a kind of cotangent.

Finally, the Berlin papyrus (c. 1300 BC [6] [7]) shows that ancient Egyptians could solve a second-order algebraic equation [8].

## [edit] Ancient Babylonian mathematics (c. 1800—550 BC)

Babylonian mathematics refers to any mathematics of the peoples of Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) from the days of the early Sumerians until the beginning of the Hellenistic period. It is named Babylonian mathematics due to the central role of Babylon as a place of study, which ceased to exist during the Hellenistic period. From this point, Babylonian mathematics merged with Greek and Egyptian mathematics to give rise to Hellenistic mathematics.

In contrast to the sparsity of sources in Egyptian mathematics, our knowledge of Babylonian mathematics is derived from more than 400 clay tablets unearthed since the 1850s. Written in Cuneiform script, tablets were inscribed whilst the clay was moist, and baked hard in an oven or by the heat of the sun. Some of these appear to be graded homework. The majority of recovered clay tablets date from 1800 to 1600 BC, and cover topics which include fractions, algebra, quadratic and cubic equations, and the calculation of Pythagorean triples (see Plimpton 322).^{[9]} The tablets also include multiplication tables, trigonometry tables and methods for solving linear and quadratic equations. The Babylonian tablet YBC 7289 gives an approximation to √2 accurate to five decimal places.

Babylonian mathematics was written using a sexagesimal (base-60) numeral system. From this we derive the modern day usage of 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, and 360 (60 x 6) degrees in a circle. Babylonian advances in mathematics were facilitated by the fact that 60 has many divisors. Also, unlike the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, the Babylonians had a true place-value system, where digits written in the left column represented larger values, much as in the decimal system. They lacked, however, an equivalent of the decimal point, and so the place value of a symbol often had to be inferred from the context.

## [edit] Ancient Indian mathematics (c. 1500 BC—AD 200)

The chronology of **Indian mathematics** spans from the Indus Valley civilization (3300-1500 BCE) and Vedic civilization (1500-500 BCE) to modern India (21st century CE).

The first appearance of evidence of the use of mathematics in the Indian subcontinent was in the Indus Valley Civilization, which dates back to around 3300 BC. Excavations at Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and the surrounding area of the Indus River, have uncovered much evidence of the use of basic mathematics.

The geometry in Vedic mathematics was used for elaborate construction of religious and astronomical sites. Many aspects of practical mathematics are found in Vedic mathematics.^{[10]}

The *Shatapatha Brahmana* (c. 9th century BC) approximates the value of π to 2 decimal places.^{[9]} The Sulba Sutras (c. 800-500 BC) were geometry texts that used irrational numbers, prime numbers, the rule of three and cube roots; computed the square root of 2 to five decimal places; gave the method for squaring the circle; solved linear equations and quadratic equations; developed Pythagorean triples algebraically and gave a statement and numerical proof of the Pythagorean theorem.

Pāṇini (c. 5th century BC) formulated the grammar rules for Sanskrit. His notation was similar to modern mathematical notation, and used metarules, transformations, and recursions with such sophistication that his grammar had the computing power equivalent to a Turing machine. Panini's work is also the forerunner to the modern theory of formal grammars (important in computing), while the Panini-Backus form used by most modern programming languages is also significantly similar to Panini's grammar rules. Pingala (roughly 3rd-1st centuries BC) in his treatise of prosody uses a device corresponding to a binary numeral system. His discussion of the combinatorics of meters, corresponds to the binomial theorem. Pingala's work also contains the basic ideas of Fibonacci numbers (called *mātrāmeru*). The Brāhmī script was developed at least from the Maurya dynasty in the 4th century BC, with recent archeological evidence appearing to push back that date to around 600 BC. The Brahmi numerals date to the 3rd century BC.

Between 400 BC and AD 200, Jaina mathematicians began studying mathematics for the sole purpose of mathematics. They were the first to develop transfinite numbers, set theory, logarithms, fundamental laws of indices, cubic equations, quartic equations, sequences and progressions, permutations and combinations, squaring and extracting square roots, and finite and infinite powers. The *Bakshali Manuscript* written between 200 BC and AD 200 included solutions of linear equations with up to five unknowns, the solution of the quadratic equation, arithmetic and geometric progressions, compound series, quadratic indeterminate equations, simultaneous equations, and the use of zero and negative numbers. Accurate computations for irrational numbers could be found, which includes computing square roots of numbers as large as a million to at least 11 decimal places.

## [edit] Ancient Chinese mathematics (c. 1300 BC—AD 200)

Dating from the Shang period (1600—1046 BC), the earliest extant Chinese mathematics consists of numbers scratched on tortoise shell [10] [11]. These numbers use a decimal system, so that the number 123 is written (from top to bottom) as the symbol for 1 followed by the symbol for a hundred, then the symbol for 2 followed by the symbol for ten, then the symbol for 3. This was the most advanced number system in the world at the time and allowed calculations to be carried out on the *suan pan* or Chinese abacus. The date of the invention of the suan pan is not certain, but the earliest written reference was in AD 190 in the *Supplementary Notes on the Art of Figures* written by Xu Yue. The suan pan was most likely in use earlier than this date.

In China, in 212 BC, the Emperor Qin Shi Huang (Shi Huang-ti) commanded that all books be burned. While this order was not universally obeyed, as a consequence little is known with certainty about ancient Chinese mathematics.

From the Western Zhou Dynasty (from 1046 BC), the oldest mathematical work to survive the book burning is the I Ching, which uses the 64 binary 6-tuples for philosophical or mystical purposes. The tuples are depicted as hexagrams made out of broken and solid lines, representing yin and yang.

After the book burning, the Han dynasty (206 BC—AD 221) produced works of mathematics which presumably expand on works that are now lost. The most important of these is *The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art*. It consists of 246 word problems, involving agriculture, business and engineering and includes material on right triangles and π.

## [edit] Greek and Hellenistic mathematics (c. 550 BC—AD 300)

Greek mathematics refers to mathematics written in Greek between about 600 BCE and 450 CE ^{[11]}. Greek mathematicians lived in cities spread over the entire Eastern Mediterranian, from Italy to North Africa, but were united by culture and language. Greek mathematics is sometimes called Hellenistic mathematics.

Greek mathematics was much more sophisticated than the mathematics that had been developed by earlier cultures. All surviving records of pre-Greek mathematics show the use of inductive reasoning, that is, repeated observations used to establish rules of thumb. Greek mathematicians, by contrast, used deductive reasoning. The Greeks used logic to derive conclusions from definitions and axioms. ^{[12]}

Greek mathematics is thought to have begun with Thales (c. 624—c.546 BC) and Pythagoras (c. 582—c. 507 BC). Although the extent of the influence is disputed, they were probably inspired by the ideas of Egypt, Mesopotamia and perhaps India. According to legend, Pythagoras travelled to Egypt to learn mathematics, geometry, and astronomy from Egyptian priests.

Thales used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. Pythagoras is credited with the first proof of the Pythagorean theorem, though the statement of the theorem has a long history. In his commentary on Euclid, Proclus states that Pythagoras expressed the theorem that bears his name and constructed Pythagorean triples algebraically rather than geometrically. The Academy of Plato had the motto "let none unversed in geometry enter here".

The Pythagoreans discovered the existance of irrational numbers. Eudoxus (408 —c.355 BC) invented the method of exhaustion, a precursor of modern calculus. Aristotle (384—c.322 BC) first wrote down the laws of logic. Euclid (c. 300 BC) is the earliest example of the format still used in mathematics today, definition, axiom, theorem, proof. He also studied conics. His book, *Elements*, was known to all educated people in the West until the middle of the 20th Century. ^{[13]}. In addition to the familiar theorems of geometry, such as the Pythagorean theorem, *Elements* includes a proof that the square root of two is irrational and that there are infinitely many prime numbers. The Sieve of Eratosthenes (ca. 230 BC) was used to discover prime numbers.

Some say the greatest of Greek mathematicians, if not of all time, was Archimedes (287—212 BC) of Syracuse. According to Plutarch, at the age of 75, while drawing mathematical formulas in the dust, he was run through with a spear by a Roman soldier. Ancient Rome left little evidence of any interest in pure mathematics.

## [edit] Classical Chinese mathematics (c. 400—1300)

Zu Chongzhi (5th century) of the Southern and Northern Dynasties computed the value of π to seven decimal places, which remained the most accurate value of π for almost 1000 years.

In the thousand years following the Han dynasty, starting in the Tang dynasty and ending in the Song dynasty, Chinese mathematics thrived at a time when European mathematics did not exist. Developments first made in China, and only much later known in the West, include negative numbers, the binomial theorem, matrix methods for solving systems of linear equations and the Chinese remainder theorem. The Chinese also developed Pascal's triangle and the rule of three long before it was known in Europe.

Even after European mathematics began to flourish during the Renaissance, European and Chinese mathematics were separate traditions, with significant Chinese mathematical output in decline, until the Jesuit missionaries carried mathematical ideas back and forth between the two cultures from the 16th to 18th centuries.

## [edit] Classical Indian mathematics (c. 400—1600)

The *Surya Siddhanta* (c. 400) introduced the trigonometric functions of sine, cosine, and inverse sine, and laid down rules to determine the true motions of the luminaries, which conforms to their actual positions in the sky. The cosmological time cycles explained in the text, which was copied from an earlier work, corresponds to an average sidereal year of 365.2563627 days, which is only 1.4 seconds longer than the modern value of 365.25636305 days. This work was translated to Arabic and Latin during the Middle Ages.

Aryabhata in 499 introduced the versine function, produced the first trigonometric tables of sine, developed techniques and algorithms of algebra, infinitesimals, differential equations, and obtained whole number solutions to linear equations by a method equivalent to the modern method, along with accurate astronomical calculations based on a heliocentric system of gravitation. An Arabic translation of his *Aryabhatiya* was available from the 8th century, followed by a Latin translation in the 13th century. He also computed the value of π to the fourth decimal place as 3.1416. Madhava later in the 14th century computed the value of π to the eleventh decimal place as 3.14159265359.

In the 7th century, Brahmagupta identified the Brahmagupta theorem, Brahmagupta's identity and Brahmagupta's formula, and for the first time, in *Brahma-sphuta-siddhanta*, he lucidly explained the use of zero as both a placeholder and decimal digit and explained the Hindu-Arabic numeral system. It was from a translation of this Indian text on mathematics (around 770) that Islamic mathematicians were introduced to this numeral system, which they adapted as Arabic numerals. Islamic scholars carried knowledge of this number system to Europe by the 12th century, and it has now displaced all older number systems throughout the world. In the 10th century, Halayudha's commentary on Pingala's work contains a study of the Fibonacci sequence and Pascal's triangle, and describes the formation of a matrix.

In the 12th century, Bhaskara first conceived differential calculus, along with the concepts of the derivative, differential coefficient and differentiation. He also proved Rolle's theorem (a special case of the mean value theorem), studied Pell's equation, and investigated the derivative of the sine function. From the 14th century, Madhava and other Kerala School mathematicians, further developed his ideas. They developed the concepts of mathematical analysis and floating point numbers, and concepts fundamental to the overall development of calculus, including the mean value theorem, term by term integration, the relationship of an area under a curve and its antiderivative or integral, tests of convergence, iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations, and a number of infinite series, power series, Taylor series and trigonometric series. In the 16th century, Jyeshtadeva consolidated many of the Kerala School's developments and theorems in the *Yuktibhasa*, the world's first differential calculus text, which also introduced concepts of integral calculus. Mathematical progress in India became stagnant from the late 16th century onwards due to subsequent political turmoil.

## [edit] Arabic and Islamic mathematics (c. 700—1600)

The Islamic Arab Empire established across the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, Iberia, and in parts of India in the 8th century made significant contributions towards mathematics.

Although most Islamic texts on mathematics were written in Arabic, they were not all written by Arabs, since much like the status of Greek in the Hellenistic world, Arabic was used as the written language of non-Arab scholars throughout the Islamic world at the time. Some of the most important Islamic mathematicians were Persian.

Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Ḵwārizmī, a 9th century Persian mathematician and astronomer to the Caliph of Baghdad, wrote several important books on the Hindu-Arabic numerals and on methods for solving equations. His book *On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals*, written about 825, along with the work of the Arab mathematician Al-Kindi, were instrumental in spreading Indian mathematics and Indian numerals to the West. The word *algorithm* is derived from the Latinization of his name, Algoritmi, and the word *algebra* from the title of one of his works, *Al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī hīsāb al-ğabr wa’l-muqābala* (*The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing*). Al-Khwarizmi is often called the "father of algebra", for his preservation of ancient algebraic methods and for his original contributions to the field. [12] *[13]*

Further developments in algebra were made by Abu Bakr al-Karaji (953—1029) in his treatise *al-Fakhri*, where he extends the methodology to incorporate integer powers and integer roots of unknown quantities. In the 10th century, Abul Wafa translated the works of Diophantus into Arabic and developed the tangent function.

Omar Khayyam, the 12th century poet, was also a mathematician, and wrote *Discussions of the Difficulties in Euclid*, a book about flaws in Euclid's *Elements*. He gave a geometric solution to cubic equations, one of the most original developments in Islamic mathematics. He was also very influential in calendar reform. The Persian mathematician Nasir al-Din Tusi (Nasireddin) in the 13th century made advances in spherical trigonometry. He also wrote influential work on Euclid's parallel postulate.

In the 15th century, Ghiyath al-Kashi computed the value of π to the 16th decimal place. Kashi also had an algorithm for calculating *n*th roots, which was a special case of the methods given many centuries later by Ruffini and Horner. Other notable Islamic mathematicians are al-Samawal, Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi, Jamshid al-Kashi, Thabit ibn Qurra, Abu Kamil and Abu Sahl al-Kuhi.

During the time of the Ottoman Empire (from the 15th century) the development of Islamic mathematics became stagnant. This parallels the stagnation of mathematics when the Romans conquered the Hellenistic world.

Recent research paints a new picture of the debt that we owe to Islamic mathematics. Certainly many of the ideas which were previously thought to have been brilliant new conceptions due to European mathematicians of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are now known to have been developed by Arabic/Islamic mathematicians four centuries earlier. In many respects, the mathematics studied today is far closer in style to that of Islamic mathematics than to that of Hellenistic mathematics.

## [edit] European Renaissance mathematics (c. 1200—1600)

In Europe at the dawn of the Renaissance, most of what is now called school mathematics -- addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and geometry -- was known to educated people, though the notation was cumbersome: Roman numerals and words were used, but no symbols: no plus sign, no equal sign, and no use of *x* as an unknown. Most of the mathematics now taught at universities was either known only to the mathematical community in India or had yet to be investigated and developed in Europe.

Through Latin translations of Arabic texts, knowledge of the Hindu-Arabic numerals and other important developments of Islamic and Indian mathematics were brought to Europe. Robert of Chester's translation of Al-Khwarizmi's Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah into Latin in the 12th century was particularly important. The earlier works of Aristotle were redeveloped in Europe, first in Arabic and later in Greek. Of particular importance was the rediscovery of a collection of Aristotle's logical writing, compiled in the 1st century, known as the Organon.

The reawakened desire for new knowledge sparked a renewed interest in mathematics. Fibonacci, in the early 13th century, produced the first significant mathematics in Europe since the time of Eratosthenes, a gap of more than a thousand years. But it was only from the late 16th century that European mathematicians began to make advances without precedent anywhere in the world, so far as is known today.

The first of these was the general solution of cubic equations, generally credited to Scipione del Ferro circa 1510, but first published in Gerolamo Cardano's *Ars magna*. It was quickly followed by Lodovico Ferrari's solution of the general quartic equation.

From this point on, mathematical developments came swiftly, and combined with advances in science, to their mutual benefit. At this time Treviso arithmetic was first written, and is still regarded as the first mathematics book ever printed. In the landmark year 1543, Copernicus published *De revolutionibus*, asserting that the Earth traveled around the Sun, and Vesalius published *De humani corporis fabrica*, treating the human body as a collection of organs.

Driven by the demands of navigation and the growing need for accurate maps of large areas, trigonometry grew to be a major branch of mathematics. Bartholomaeus Pitiscus was the first to use the word, publishing his *Trigonometria* in 1595. Regiomontanus' table of sines and cosines was published in 1533.^{[14]}

By century's end, thanks to Regiomontanus (1436—1476) and François Vieta (1540—1603), among others, mathematics was written using Hindu-Arabic numerals and in a form not too different from the elegant notation used today.

## [edit] 17th century

The 17th century saw an unprecedented explosion of mathematical and scientific ideas across Europe. Galileo, an Italian, observed the moons of Jupiter in orbit about that planet, using a telescope based on a toy imported from Holland. Tycho Brahe, a Dane, had gathered an enormous quantity of mathematical data describing the positions of the planets in the sky. His student, Johannes Kepler, a German, began to work with this data. In part because he wanted to help Kepler in his calculations, John Napier, in Scotland, was the first to investigate natural logarithms. Kepler succeeded in formulating mathematical laws of planetary motion. The analytic geometry developed by René Descartes (1596-1650), a French mathematician and philosopher, allowed those orbits to be plotted on a graph, in Cartesian coordinates. Building on earlier work by many mathematicians, Isaac Newton, an Englishman, discovered the laws of physics explaining Kepler's Laws, and brought together the concepts now known as calculus. Independently, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, in Germany, developed calculus and much of the calculus notation still in use today. Science and mathematics had become an international endeavor, which would soon spread over the entire world. ^{[15]}

In addition to the application of mathematics to the studies of the heavens, applied mathematics began to expand into new areas, with the correspondence of Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal. Pascal and Fermat set the groundwork for the investigations of probability theory and the corresponding rules of combinatorics in their discussions over a game of gambling. Pascal, with his wager, attempted to use the newly developing probability theory to argue for a life devoted to religion, on the grounds that even if the probability of success was small, the rewards were infinite. In a sense this forshadowed the later 18th-19th century development of utility theory.

## [edit] 18th century

As we have seen, knowledge of the natural numbers, 1, 2, 3,..., as preserved in monolithic structures, is older than any surviving written text. The earliest civilizations -- in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and China -- knew arithmetic.

One way to view the development of the various number systems of modern mathematics is to see new numbers studied and investigated to answer questions about arithmetic performed on older numbers. In prehistoric times, fractions answered the question: what number, when multiplied by 3, gives the answer 1. In India and China, and much later in Germany, negative numbers were developed to answer the question: what do you get when you subtract a larger number from a smaller. The invention of the zero may have followed from similar question: what do you get when you subtract a number from itself.

Another natural question is: what kind of a number is the square root of two? The Greeks knew that it was not a fraction, and this question may have played a role in the development of continued fractions. But a better answer came with the invention of decimals, developed by John Napier (1550 - 1617) and perfected later by Simon Stevin. Using decimals, and an idea that anticipated the concept of the limit, Napier also studied a new constant, which Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) named *e*.

Euler was very influential in the standardization of other mathematical terms and notations. He named the square root of minus 1 with the symbol *i*. He also popularized the use of the Greek letter π to stand for the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. He then derived one of the most remarkable identities in all of mathematics:

(see Euler's Identity.)

## [edit] 19th century

Throughout the 19th century mathematics became increasingly abstract. In this century lived one of the greatest mathematicians of all time, Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855). Leaving aside his many contributions to science, in pure mathematics he did revolutionary work on functions of complex variables, in geometry, and on the convergence of series. He gave the first satisfactory proofs of the fundamental theorem of algebra and of the quadratic reciprocity law.The Russian mathematician Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky and his rival the Hungarian mathematician Janos Bolyai both independently discovered non-Euclidean geometry. Their non-Euclidean geometry was called hyperbolic geometry and differed from traditional Euclidean geometry in that it rejected Euclid's fifth postulate, a rule of Euclidean geometry that states that parallel lines go on to infinity and never intersect. They replaced this with a postulate that allowed parallel lines to intersect, in hyperbolic geometry because parallel lines can intersect triangles have less than 180 degrees. The initial reaction of the mathematical and scientific communities to Lobachevsky's findings was hostile. It was very courageous of Lobachevsky to publish his findings in the face of this opposition. Lobachevsky's essay about non-Euclidean geometry *A concise outline of the foundations of geometry* was published by the *Kazan Messenger* but was rejected by Ostrogodski when the St. Petersberg Academy of Sciences submitted it for publication. Another non-Euclidean geometry called elliptic geometry was developed later in the nineteenth century by the German mathematician George Friedrich Bernhard Riemmann. In elliptic geometry parallel lines do not exist and there are three dimensional triangles with more than 180 degrees. Despite the fact that the mathematical and scientific communities' initial reaction to non-Euclidean geometries was at first negative these new geometries and in particular elliptic geometry later turned out to be crucial to Albert Einstein's theory of relativity;e=mc squared, which is a theory about geometrical gravitational fields, although the theory of relativity also used Euclidean flat space. Also in the nineteenth century William Rowan Hamilton developed noncommutative algebra.

Lobachevsky also discovered a method for finding the approximations of the roots of algebraic equations which is still called the Lobachevsky method in Russia although it is called the Dandelin-Graffe method in the West after two western mathematicians who discovered it independently both of each other and of Lobachevsky.

In addition to new directions in mathematics, older mathematics were given a stronger logical foundation, especially in the case of calculus, in work by Augustin-Louis Cauchy and Karl Weierstrass.

A new form of algebra was developed in the nineteenth century called Boolean algebra. It was developed by a British mathematician named George Boole. It was a system that contained true and false statements, in it 1 meant true and 0 meant false. Boolean algebra later became important in the twentieth century because it was the mathematics that would be used for computers.

Also, for the first time, the limits of mathematics were explored. Niels Henrik Abel, a Norwegian, and Évariste Galois, a Frenchman, proved that there is no general algebraic method for solving polynomial equations of degree greater than four, and other 19th century mathematicians utilized this in their proofs that straightedge and compass alone are not sufficient to trisect an arbitrary angle, to construct the side of a cube twice the volume of a given cube, nor to construct a square equal in area to a given circle. Mathematicians had vainly attempted to solve all of these problems since the time of the ancient Greeks.

Abel and Galois's investigations into the solutions of various polynomial equations laid the groundwork for further developments of group theory, and the associated fields of abstract algebra. In the 20th century physicists and other scientists have seen group theory as the ideal way to study symmetry.

The 19th century also saw the founding of the first mathematical societies: the London Mathematical Society in 1865, the Société Mathématique de France in 1872, the Circolo Mathematico di Palermo in 1884, the Edinburgh Mathematical Society in 1864, and the American Mathematical Society in 1888.

Before the 20th century, the number of creative mathematicians in the world at any one time was limited. For the most part, mathematicians were either born to wealth, like Napier, or supported by wealthy patrons, like Gauss. There were a few meager livelihoods to be had teaching at a university, like Fourier. Niels Henrik Abel, unable to obtain a position, died of tuberculosis.

## [edit] 20th century

The profession of mathematician became much more important in the twentieth century. Every year, hundreds of new Ph.D.s in mathematics are awarded, and jobs are available both in teaching and industry. Mathematical development has grown at an exponential rate, with too many new developments to even touch on any but a few of the most profound.

In the 1910s, Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan (1887-1920) developed over 3000 theorems, including properties of highly composite numbers, the partition function and its asymptotics, and mock theta functions. He also made major breakthroughs and discoveries in the areas of gamma functions, modular forms, divergent series, hypergeometric series and prime number theory.

Famous theorems of the past yielded to new and more powerful techniques. Wolfgang Haken and Kenneth Appel used a computer to prove the four color theorem. Andrew Wiles, working alone in his office for years, proved Fermat's last theorem.

Entire new areas of mathematics such as mathematical logic, the mathematics of computers, statistics, and game theory changed the kinds of questions that could be answered by mathematical methods. Bourbaki, a non-existent French mathematician, attempted to bring all of mathematics into a coherent whole.

There were also new investigations of limitations to mathematics. Kurt Gödel proved that in any mathematical system that includes the integers, there are true statements that cannot be proved. Paul Cohen proved the independence of the continuum hypothesis from the standard axioms of set theory.

By the end of the century, mathematics was even finding its way into art, as fractal geometry produced beautiful shapes never seen before.

## [edit] 21st century

At the dawn of the 21st century, many educators express concerns about a new underclass, the mathematically and scientifically illiterate.^{[16]} At the same time, mathematics, science, engineering, and technology have together created knowledge, communication, and prosperity undreamed of by ancient philosophers.

## [edit] Notes

**^**Henahan, Sean (2002). Art Prehistory.*Science Updates*. The National Health Museum. Retrieved on 2006-05-06.**^**An old mathematical object**^**Mathematics in (central) Africa before colonization**^**Kellermeier, John (2003). How Menstruation Created Mathematics.*Ethnomathematics*. Tacoma Community College. Retrieved on 2006-05-06.**^**Williams, Scott W. (2005). The Oledet Mathematical Object is in Swaziland.*MATHEMATICIANS OF THE AFRICAN DIASPORA*. SUNY Buffalo mathematics department. Retrieved on 2006-05-06.**^**Williams, Scott W. (2005). An Old Mathematical Object.*MATHEMATICIANS OF THE AFRICAN DIASPORA*. SUNY Buffalo mathematics department. Retrieved on 2006-05-06.**^**Thom, Alexander and Archie Thom, "The metrology and geometry of Megalithic Man," pp 132-151 in C.L.N. Ruggles, ed.,*Records in Stone: Papers in memory of Alexander Thom*, (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1988) ISBN 0-521-33381-4**^**Pearce, Ian G. (2002). Early Indian culture - Indus civilisation.*Indian Mathematics: Redressing the balance*. School of Mathematical and Computational Sciences University of St Andrews. Retrieved on 2006-05-06.**^**Aaboe, Asger (1998).*Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics*. New York: Random House, 30-31.**^**Mathematical Expeditions: Chronicles by the Explorers by David Pengelley, Reinhard C. Laubenbacher**^**Howard Eves,*An Introduction to the History of Mathematics*, Saunders, 1990, ISBN 0030295580**^**Martin Bernal, "Animadversions on the Origins of Western Science", pp. 72-83 in Michael H. Shank, ed.,*The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages*, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr.) 2000, on mathematical proofs see p. 75.**^**Howard Eves,*An Introduction to the History of Mathematics*, Saunders, 1990, ISBN 0030295580 p. 141 "No work, except The Bible, has been more widely used... ."**^**Grattan-Guinness, Ivor (1997).*The Rainbow of Mathematics: A History of the Mathematical Sciences*. W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-32030-8.**^**Eves, Howard, An Introduction to the History of Mathematics, Saunders, 1990, ISBN 0-03-029558-0, p. 379, "...the concepts of calculus...(are) so far reaching and have exercised such an impact on the modern world that it is perhaps correct to say that without some knowledge of them a person today can scarcely claim to be well educated."**^**Estela A. Gavosto, Steven G. Krantz, William McCallum, Editors,*Contemporary Issues in Mathematics Education*, Cambridge University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-521-65471-8

## [edit] References

- Aaboe, Asger (1964).
*Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics*. New York: Random House. - Boyer, C. B.,
*A History of Mathematics*, 2nd ed. rev. by Uta C. Merzbach. New York: Wiley, 1989 ISBN 0-471-09763-2 (1991 pbk ed. ISBN 0-471-54397-7). - Eves, Howard,
*An Introduction to the History of Mathematics*, Saunders, 1990, ISBN 0-03-029558-0, - Hoffman, Paul,
*The Man Who Loved Only Numbers: The Story of Paul Erdős and the Search for Mathematical Truth*. New York: Hyperion, 1998 ISBN 0-7868-6362-5. - van der Waerden, B. L.,
*Geometry and Algebra in Ancient Civilizations*, Springer, 1983, ISBN 0387121595. - O'Connor, John J. and Robertson, Edmund F.
*The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive*. (See also MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.) This website contains biographies, timelines and historical articles about mathematical concepts; at the School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Scotland. (Or see the alphabetical list of history topics.) - Stigler, Stephen M. (1990).
*The History of Statistics: The Measurement of Uncertainty before 1900*. Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-40341-X.

## [edit] Bibliography

- Bell, E.T. (1937).
*Men of Mathematics*. Simon and Schuster. - Gillings, Richard J. (1972).
*Mathematics in the time of the pharaohs*. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press. - Heath, Sir Thomas (1981).
*A History of Greek Mathematics*. Dover. ISBN 0-486-24073-8. - Menninger, Karl W. (1969).
*Number Words and Number Symbols: A Cultural History of Numbers*. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-13040-8.

## [edit] See also

- Bartel Leendert van der Waerden
- Important publications in the history of mathematics
- History of mathematical notation
- History of writing numbers
- History of trigonometric functions

## [edit] External links

- Ishango, 22000 and 50 years later: the cradle of mathematics?
- BSHM Links to Web Sites on the History of Mathematics
- Math Archives: Links on the History of Mathematics
- Earliest uses of various mathematical symbols by Jeff Miller
- Earliest known uses of some of the words of mathematics by Jeff Miller
- History of Indian mathematics by Ian Pearce
- History of calculus by Fred Rickey
- MacTutor History of Mathematics