Hamm

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Coordinates: 51°40′N 7°49′E

Hamm
Coat of arms of Hamm Location of Hamm in Germany

Country Germany
State North Rhine-Westphalia
Administrative region Arnsberg
District urban district
Population 180,849 source (2005)
Area 226.26 km²
Population density 816 /km²
Elevation 63 m
Coordinates 51°40′ N 7°49′ E
Postal code 59000-59077
Area code 02381-02389
Licence plate code HAM
Mayor Thomas Hunsteger-Petermann (CDU)
Website hamm.de

Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. It is located on the Lippe River, northeast of the Ruhr area. As of December 2003 its population was 180,849. The city situated between the A1 motorway and A2 motorway. Hamm railway station is an important hub for rail transport and renown for its distinctive station building.

 Hamm railway station hall (Hauptbahnhof Hamm / Bahnhofshalle )
Hamm railway station hall (Hauptbahnhof Hamm / Bahnhofshalle )

Contents

[edit] History

[edit] Coat of arms

The coat of arms has been in use in its present form for about 750 years. It shows the markish chessboard ("märkischen Schachbalken")in red and silver on a golden field. Originally it was the coat of arms of the Counts of the Mark, which founded the town. The chessboard and the colours are often to be found in coat of arms of other towns founded by the counts. The colours of the city are, similarly, red and white.

[edit] Overview

The name Ham means "corner" in the old Low German dialect that was spoken in that time. In former times it was also called thom Hamme, which changed slowly to its modern form Hamm. This name was given due to the location of Hamm in the corner of the Lippe river and the narrow Ahse affluent. Where the town was founded on Ash Wednesday in March 1226 by Count Adolf I of the Mark.

 Pauluskirche former St.Georg, main church of Hamm
Pauluskirche former St.Georg, main church of Hamm
 "Gründungsprivileg" Town rights of Hamm
"Gründungsprivileg" Town rights of Hamm
  • 1350 The Black death killed nearly the whole citizens. Only seven families survived.
  • 1469 Hamm became a member of the Hanseatic League. It was one of the most powerful towns in the region, while the large cities of the today's Ruhr area were only tiny villages.
  • 1614 Treaty of Xanten ends the conflict about the heritage of Cleve-Mark, the Electorate Brandenburg (later Prussia) inherited the Ducal Cleve and the counties Ravensburg and Mark (with Hamm)
  • 1618-1648 Thirty Years' War, Hamm was several times taken by different armed forces and had to endure changing garrisons. Nearly all buildings were destroyed, except the main church St.Georg (today: Pauluskirche) and St.Agnes church.
  • 1657 Establishment of the Gynasium illustre (later named Gymnasium Hammonense) with three faculties (theology, jurisprudence and philosophy).
  • 1753 Establishment of the regional court (Landgericht)
  • 1767 "Märkische Kammerdeputation" established
  • 1769 Brewery Isenbeck founded
  • 1787 Changing of the "Märkische Kammerdeputation" into the "Märkische Kriegs- und Domänenkammer" by the Prussian "Generaldirektorium".
  • 1818 Hamm has 4,688 inhabitants.
  • 1820 The regional appeal court moves from Cleve to Hamm.
  • 1847 First train stops at the main station Hamm
  • 1853 Westfälische Union (later Thyssen Draht AG) was founded
  • 1856 Westfälische Draht Industrie was founded (later Klöckner Draht GmbH, today Westfälische Draht Industrie (WDI))
  • 1901 30,000 inhabitants, Hamm leaves the district Hamm
  • 1901 Coal-mine de Wendel in Herringen starts mining (later Heinrich-Robert, now Verbundberwerk Ost) (first coal output 1904)
  • 1902 Coal-mine Maximilian in Werries/Ostwennemar starts mining (first coal output 1907)
  • 1905 Coal-mine Radbod in Bockum-Hövel starts mining (first coal output 1905)
  • 1912 Coal-mine Sachsen in Heessen starts mining (first coal output 1914)
  • 1914 Datteln-Hamm-Canal is completed and the first ship stoped at the city port
  • 1938 The A2 reached Hamm
  • 1939-1945 55 air raids destroyed nearly 80% of the the old city and left only a few historical buildings.
  • 1944 Coal-mine Maximillian closed after several problems with water drainage of the hole mine (complete flooded in 1914).
  • 1945 First meeting of the city council after the war
  • 1946 Establishment of the industrial court and the industrial court of appeal by the Allied Control Council.
  • 1956 Sport airfield founded in the Lippe meadows.
  • 1965 A1 reached Hamm.
  • 1976 Coal-mine Sachsen closed
Sri Kamadchi Ampal Temple Hamm
Sri Kamadchi Ampal Temple Hamm
  • 1984 First Landesgartenschau (horticultural show of the federal state) of North Rhine-Westphalia was held in Hamm. The old area of the coal-mine Maximillian was used for this purpose. The world greatest Glasselefant was build as main attraction and is until today one of the major landmarks of the city.
  • 1990 Coal-mine Radbod closed.
  • 2002 Consecration of the Sri Kamadchi Ampal-Temple
  • 2005 Establishment of the university of applied sciences "SRH Fachhochschule Hamm"

[edit] Population development

Until 1833 any population is an approximation, in later times the population was counted or updated by the local government or other institutions of the government.

year population
1618 1,000
1719 3,250
1798 3,065
1818 4,680
1832 6,272
3rd December 1861 ¹ 11,600
3rd December 1867 ¹ 16,000
1st December 1871 ¹ 16,924
1st December 1875 ¹ 18,877
1st December 1880 ¹ 20,800
1st December 1885 ¹ 22,523
1st December 1890 ¹ 24,969
2nd December 1895 ¹ 28,589
year population
1st December 1900 ¹ 31,371
1st Dezember 1905 ¹ 38,429
1st December 1910 ¹ 43,663
1st December 1916 ¹ 40,776
5th Dezember 1917 ¹ 40,516
8th October 1919 ¹ 45,756
16th Juni 1925 ¹ 49,777
16th Juni 1933 ¹ 53,532
17th May 1939 ¹ 59,035
31 December 1945 50,971
29 October 1946 ¹ 49,751
13th September 1950 ¹ 59,866
25th September 1956 ¹ 66,327
year population
6th Juni 1961 ¹ 70,641
31. December 1965 73,520
27. May 1970 ¹ 84,942
31. December 1975 172,210
31. December 1980 171,869
31. December 1985 166,379
25th May 1987 ¹ 171,170
31. December 1990 179,639
31. December 1995 183,408
31. December 2000 181,197
31. December 2005 180,849

¹ "Volkszählungsergebnis" counted population

[edit] Politics and Structure

[edit] City council

The city council has 58 members, since 2004 the seating is the following:

CDU SPD GRÜNE FDP BG Hamm REP Parteilos Gesamt
2004 28 20 3 2 1 1 3 58

Head of the city Council is the "Oberbürgermeister" (Lord mayor usually used translation, but different in the functions of the office) the chief executive (since 1999) of the administration in Hamm. The "Oberbürgermeister" is direct elected for a five years term, together with the city council. The "Oberstadtdirektor" was the chief executive bevor the reform of 1999 in NRW, he was a not elected executive of the administration and the "Oberbürgermeister" in the period bevor 1999 was only the elected representative.

[edit] Incorprations

In 1939, 1968 and 1975 Hamm incorporated several towns and municipalities: in 1939 the village Mark (which has given the name to the Counts and the county) and in 1968 the villages of Berge and Westtünnen. In the reorganisation of 1975, the following towns and municipalities were incorporated into the City of Hamm:

  1. The town of Bockum-Hövel, Lüdinghausen district
  2. The town of Heessen, Beckum district
  3. The municipality of Uentrop, Unna district, formed in 1968, including the municipalities of Braam-Ostwennemar, Frielinghausen, Haaren, Norddinker, Schmehausen, Uentrop, Vöckinghausen and Werries
  4. The municipality of Rhynern, (Unna district, without Hilbeck incorporated by Werl), formed in 1968, including the municipalities of Allen, Freiske, Hilbeck, Osterflierich, Osttünnen, Rhynern, Süddinker and Wambeln
  5. The municipality of Pelkum, (Unna district), formed in 1968, including the municipalities of Herringen, Lerche, Pelkum, Sandbochum, Weetfeld and parts of Wiescherhöfen.

The number of citizens changed from 83.000 in 1974 to 173.000 in 1975.

[edit] City structure

Hamm has seven quarters which are each divided into several statistical blocks:

 Schloss Heessen
Schloss Heessen
  1. Hamm-Mitte: City, Innenstadt-Süd, Innenstadt-Ost, Süden östlich Werler Straße, Süden westlich Werler Straße, Westen, nördlich Lange Straße, Westen südlich Lange Straße, Bahnhof einschließlich Ortsgüterbahnhof
  2. Uentrop: Kurpark, Mark, Braam, Werries, Geithe, Ostwennemar, Norddinker, Vöckinghausen, Frielinghausen, Uentrop Ortskern
  3. Rhynern: Berge, Westtünnen westlich Heideweg, Westtünnen östlich Heideweg, Rhynern Ortskern, Osttünnen, Freiske, Wambeln
  4. Pelkum: Wiescherhöfen/Daberg, Lohauserholz, Selmigerheide/Weetfeld, Zechensiedlung, Harringholz, Pelkum Ortskern, Westerheide, Lerche
  5. Herringen: Westenfeldmark, Ostfeld, Heidhof, Herringen Ortskern, Nordherringen, Herringer Heide, Sandbochum
  6. Bockum-Hövel: Nordenfeldmark-West, Hövel-Mitte, Hövel-Nord, Hövel-Radbod, Bockum, Barsen, Holsen, Geinegge, Hölter
  7. Heessen: Nordenfeldmark-Ost, Mattenbecke, Zeche-Sachsen, Heessen-Mitte, Heessen Ortskern, Westhusen, Dasbeck, Frielick

The quarter with the most inhabitants is the former town of Bockum-Hövel, closely followed by the centre of the city Hamm-Mitte (which is the smallest quarter and only the centre of the town Hamm from before 1974).

[edit] Twin towns

Hamm is currently twinned with:

[edit] Specials

In 2006 Hamm was the first city to accomplish a "Ratsbürgerentscheid" (citizens decision). Subject of the plebiscite was a plan to build a 43 ha city lake (2007-2010) near the centre of the city. 136,521 citizens were entitled to vote, 57,563 used that possibility and 56,9% refused their approbation for the project. As minimal vote 20% (of the total 136,521 voters) had to declare themselves to for one of the possibilities (20% for Yes or 20% for NO). The city council accepted the voting and stoped the plans. This procedure is planned for future projects in NRW.

Also in Hamm established was the "Baugerichtstag e.V." a society to the organizing of a congress about the German building law. The congress is held in a two years term.

[edit] Health

Several hospital are situated in Hamm. The largest is the Marien Hospital with ist two separate buildings, Marien Hospital I the old building within the centre of the city and Marien Hospital II together 587 beds. Then there is the (EVK Hamm) Evangelisches Krankenhaus Hamm (Protestant Hospital) commbined with the chidrens hospital south of the centre together 493 beds, the St.Barbara Klinik (Clinic) in Heessen with 422 beds and the Malteser Krankenhaus (Hospital) St.Josef in Bockum-Hövel with 260 beds. Additional there are the Klinik für manuelle Therapie (Clinic for manual therapy) within the quarter Bad Hamm (138 beds), the cure district. The Westfälisches Institut Hamm für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und psychotherapie (Westphalian Institute Hamm for Childrens- and Youthpsychiatry and psychotherapy) as an Institute of the federal state (158 beds) and the private Klinik (clinic) am Bärenbrunnen. (All Hospitals together have 2058 beds.) Former Hospitals are:

  • The BWK Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Hamm (Hospital of the Federal Defence Forces) which will be closed in 2007 after a reform of the German forces.
  • The St.Elisabeth Kinderklinik (Childrens Hospital combined with the Märkische Kinderklinik and now part of the EVK Hamm as "Klinik für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin")
  • Märkische Kinderklinik (Childrens Hospital combined with the Elisabeth Kinderklinik and now part of the EVK Hamm as "Klinik für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin"))
  • Knappschaftskrankenhaus ( Hospital operated by the health fund for miners now Marien Hospital II)

[edit] Education

Hamm has six Gymnasien (grammar schools),two comprehensive schools and several Realschulen, Hauptschulen and Grundschulen (elementary schools). The oldest Gymnasium in Hamm is the Gymnasium Hammonense which was established as academic school (small university) with three faculties in 1657. The school declined in its importance and was 1781 merged with the local Latin school and reformed by Prussia. The new combined school was humanist Gymnasium. 1867 the "Märkisches Gymnasium" followed as the second Gymnasium of Hamm, in 1902 the "Freiherr vom Stein Gymnasium", in 1924 the "Beisenkamp Gymnasium" - first as "Oberlyceum" (Gymnasium for girls) - and in 1968 the "Galilei-Gymnasium" were established. Additionaly in Schloss Heessen is a private school with a Gymnasium. Both coprehensive schools in Hamm are younger foundations of the city during reforms of the schools in NRW. Hamm is also well known for its many vocational schools:

  • "Friederich List Berufskolleg für Wirtschaft" a trade school
  • "Eduard Spranger Berufskolleg für Technik" a vocational school for technics
  • "Elisabeth Lüders Berufskolleg für Sozialwesen, Gesundheit, Hauswirtschaft und Kinderpflege" a vocational school for social welfare, health, home economics and child care

,and several other schools.

In 2005 a small private university of applied sciences was established, the "SRH Fachhoschule Hamm". The university of applied sciences started with two programs of study ending with the degrees of Bachelor and Master of Science for logistic engineering. The "Klinik für Psychartrie und Psychotherapie of the Marienhospital cooperates with the University Witten-Herdecke in eduacation and science.

[edit] Industry and economy

Major industrial branches are coal-mining industry, steel industry, chemical industry and the car component supplier industry. Of the four coal-mines within the urban district the Verbundbergwerk Ost in Herringen is the last operating with about 3,300 employees. Mannesmann Hoesch Präzisrohr, Westfälische Draht Industrie (WDI) und Böhler Thyssen Welding are the major representatives of the steel industry, the chemical industry is represented by DuPont in Uentrop and the car supplier industry by Hella KGaA Hueck & Co. factory 4 in Bockum-Hövel with about 1000 employees.

The energy industry is represented by a RWE coal power plant and another power plant under construction by Trianel in Uentrop. The THTR-300, also in Uentrop-Schmehhausen, was decommisioned in 1989. Alongside the A2, in the southern part of the urban district, a new business park inhabits the growing logistic business.

Hamm is also know as "City of the Law" (Stadt des Rechts) because of the greastest german regional appeal court , the local court, the industrial court and the industrial appeal court. Chamber of Notaries and bar association of the regional appeal court Hamm, both and the courts have a greater influence on the appearance of the city. Several hospitals in the urban district are also important employers, for example the EVK Hamm has about 1000 employees.

[edit] Media

The daily newspaper of Hamm, the only one printed there, is the "Westfälischer Anzeiger". The first, a weekly, newspaper in Hamm was the "Kreis Hammsches Wochenbaltt" founded by Heinich Jakob Grote in 1822. Its name was changed in 1848 and now to be known as "Westfälischer Anzeiger". A second newspaper appeared, founded by the family Thiemann, named the "Westfälische Kurier". Both existed until the end of the Second World War. After the War both newpapers were combined and named "Westfälischer Anzeiger und Kurier". In the 1960s the name was again changed into "Westfälischer Anzeiger". This newspaper is the mantle of several smaller newspapers of the region, togehter they had in 2004 a total 153,428 copies. In the 1970s the "Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung" tried to establish its own daily newspaper, but without success.

Two weekly newspapers appear in Hamm the "Stadtanzeiger" fron the "Westfälischer Anzeiger" with a total of 384.000 copies and the Sonntags-Rundblick by a medium sized local company.

Since 1990 the local radio station "Radio Lippewelle Hamm" is On Air and is the number one radio station of the local radios in NRW.

On the 3rd October 1993 the Offene Kanal Hamm started transmission, it is a small projekt of makeing TV by the people for the people, started through the federal state.

[edit] Transport

[edit] Roads

Hamm is connected with three motorways. The Bundesautobahn 1 (BAB 1 or A1, Puttgarden-Saarbrücken) named Hansaline with two connections No.81 and 82., the (BAB 2 or A2, Oberhausen-Berlin)with three connctions No.17,18 and 19 and the A445 (Hamm-Arnsberg) which is connected by the B63 until the planned construction between Hamm and Werl is completed. The Kamener Kreuz is situated in the southwest of Hamm. Two "federal roads" (Bundesstrassen) the B61 and B63 intersect in the centre of the city. Several state roads (Landesstrassen) are connecting Hamm with its neighbouring towns and municipalities.

[edit] Railways

Hamm has three stations, the main railway station Hamm (Westfalen) and two minor stations one Bockum-Hövel and the other in Heessen. The main station is one of the biggest railway hubs in Germany and in ist operating times one of the marshalling yards of Europe. Notable is the railway staion for its Art deco and Gründerzeit inspired building styles. Hamm is connected by the rail since May 2, 1847.

[edit] Buses

The city bus net Hamm is served by the "Stadtwerke Hamm", with 65 buses, and the "Verkehrsgesellschaft Breitenbach". A regional bus service is served by different companies and both nets serve the central bus station, which is situated in front of the main railway station in the centre of Hamm. Hamm is part of the Verkehrsgemeinschaft Ruhr-Lippe. About 12 million people are using the bus net every year, transported by 50 bus lines with 500 bus stops within the city.

[edit] Canal

Hamm is the end of the "Datteln-Hamm-Kanal", two ports are situated in the urban district. The city port and the canal end port Uentrop. The ports of Hamm are the second biggest canal port by freight transact, 1,4 millions tons a year by ships and 0,5 million tons by train. The city port is allowed for ships up to 110 meters length 11,45 meters width and 2,7 meters draft and connected with the railway by a track to the near main railway station and the marshaling yard.

sport airfield Hamm
sport airfield Hamm

[edit] Airfield and Airports

Near the centre of the city, in the meadows of the River Lippe, the sport airfield Hamm is situated. Its runway is 900 m long and 30 m width. The airfield is operated by the Luftsportclub Hamm e.V.. Hamm is in the middle of a triangle of three smaller International Airports, in the north the Münster Osnabrück International Airport (FMO) in the south-west Dortmund Airport and in the east Paderborn Lippstadt Airport. The next greater International Airport is Düsseldorf International Airport.

[edit] External links

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[edit] Literature

  • Anneliese Beeck: Hamm, Die 50er Jahre im Bild. Prolibris-Verlag, Kassel 2000, ISBN 3-935263-01-5
  • Anneliese Beeck: So entstand das neue Hamm: Kriegsende und Wiederaufbau. Griebsch, Hamm 1992, ISBN 3-924966-03-6
  • Anneliese Beeck: Es ging aufwärts in Hamm 1949–1955. Westfälischer Anzeiger Verlagsgesellschaft, Hamm 1997, ISBN 3-924966-13-3
  • Anneliese Beeck: Auf dem Weg zur Großstadt Hamm: 1956–1975. Westfälischer Anzeiger Verlagsgesellschaft, Hamm 2001, ISBN 3-924966-30-3
  • M[oritz] F[riedrich] Essellen: Beschreibung und kurze Geschichte des Kreises Hamm und der einzelnen Ortschaften in demselben, Hamm 1985 (unveränderter Nachdruck der Originalausgabe von 1851), ISBN 3-923846-07-X
  • Walther Hubatsch (Hrsg.): Grundriss zur deutschen Verwaltungsgeschichte 1815–1945, Band 8: Westfalen. Johann-Gottfried-Herder-Institut, Marburg 1980
  • Erich Keyser (Hrsg.): Westfälisches Städtebuch. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1954
  • Magistrat der Stadt Hamm (Westf.) (Hrsg.): 700 Jahre Stadt Hamm (Westf.). Festschrift zur Erinnerung an das 700jährige Bestehen der Stadt Hamm (Westf.). Stein, Werl 1973 (unveränderter Nachdruck der Originalausgabe von 1927), ISBN 3-9209-8008-5
  • Meinold Markus: Bahnhof Hamm (Westf). Die Geschichte eines Eisenbahnknotens. Hövelhof: DGEG Medien GmbH 2004, ISBN 3-937189-07-6.
  • Alfred Overmann (bearb.): Die Stadtrechte der Grafschaft Mark, 2. Hamm. Aschendorffsche Buchhandlung, Münster 1903 (= Veröffentlichungen der historischen Kommission für Westfalen. Rechtsquellen. Westfälische Stadtrechte I)
  • Eduard Raabe: Geschichte van diär Stadt Hamm, 2 Bände, Leipzig 1903
  • Wilhelm Ribhegge (Hrsg.) u. a.: Geschichte der Stadt und Region Hamm im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Patmos Verlag, Düsseldorf 1991, ISBN 3-491-34228-7
  • Wilhelm Ribhegge: Die Grafen von der Mark und die Geschichte der Stadt Hamm im Mittelalter, Ardey Verlag, Münster 2000
  • Westfälischer Städteatlas; Band: I; 7 Teilband. Im Auftrage der Historischen Kommission für Westfalen und mit Unterstützung des Landschaftsverbandes Westfalen-Lippe, hrsg. von Heinz Stoob † und Wilfried Ehbrecht. Stadtmappe Hamm, Autor: Heinz Stoob. ISBN 3-89115-334-1; Dortmund-Altenbeken, 1975.
  • Jerrentrup - Peter - Feußner: Alte Kirchen in Hamm, Westfälischer Anzeiger Verlagsgesellschaft, 1999, ISBN 3-924966-23-0
  • Jahrbuch der Stadt Hamm 2005, Online Version
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Urban districts and Districts in the German State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW)
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Aachen | Borken | Kleve (Cleves) | Coesfeld | Düren | Ennepe-Ruhr | Euskirchen | Gütersloh | Heinsberg | Herford | Hochsauerland | Höxter | Lippe | Märkischer Kreis | Mettmann | Minden-Lübbecke | Oberbergischer Kreis | Olpe | Paderborn | Recklinghausen | Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis | Rhein-Erft-Kreis | Rhein-Kreis Neuss | Rhein-Sieg-Kreis | Siegen-Wittgenstein | Soest | Steinfurt | Unna | Viersen | Warendorf | Wesel