Guadalupe Victoria

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Guadalupe Victoria
Guadalupe Victoria

In office
October 10, 1824 – April 1, 1829
Vice President(s)   Nicolás Bravo
Preceded by Agustín I, Emperor of Mexico
Succeeded by Vicente Guerrero

Born September 29, 1786
Tamazula, Durango
Died March 21, 1843
Perote, Veracruz
Political party No Party
Spouse María Antonia Bretón

Guadalupe Victoria, born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix in the state of Durango, served as the first President of Mexico from 1824 to 1829.

Born in Tamazula, Durango, he studied Law in the Colegio de San Ildefonso. In 1811 he joined the revolution proclaimed by Miguel Hidalgo and fought under José María Morelos y Pavón. After Morelos' execution he fought in Oaxaca and Veracruz.

After his defeat near the town of Palmillas, Veracruz, he remained hidden in the mountains until Agustín de Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero issued the Plan de Iguala, which called for an independent Mexico governed by a constitutional monarchy. Firmly republican, he supported Antonio López de Santa Anna and signed the Plan de Casa Mata with the purpose to overthrow then Emperor Iturbide.

He became the first president of the new country after the overthrow of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. Victoria chose his new name for symbolic significance: Guadalupe to give thanks, to what he claimed, the protection of Our Lady of Guadalupe, and Victoria which means Victory.

During his tenure he abolished slavery, established the Colegio Militar ("Military Academy"), signed a diplomatic Treaty with the United Kingdom, and expelled Spanish citizens unloyal to the government of the new country. He also was the first President to repeat Miguel Hidalgo's Grito de Dolores.

He died of epilepsy in Perote, Veracruz, in 1843 where he was interred. On August 25, 1845 he was declared Benemérito de la Patria ("Hero of the Nation") by Congress. In 1925 his remains were moved to the mausoleum at the base of El Ángel de la Independencia in Mexico City.

In 1992 Mexico purchased the ship USS Pharris (FF-1094) from the United States Navy and renamed it the Guadalupe Victoria.

Preceded by
Pedro Celestino Negrete
Nicolás Bravo
Guadalupe Victoria
(interim triumvirate)
President of Mexico
Succeeded by
Vicente Guerrero