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Eugène Ionesco, born Eugen Ionescu, (November 26, 1909 – March 29, 1994) was a French-Romanian playwright and dramatist, one of the foremost playwrights of the Theatre of the Absurd. Beyond ridiculing the most banal situations, Ionesco's plays depict in a tangible way the solitude of humans and the insignificance of one's existence.
 Biographical information
Ionesco was born on November 26, 1909, in Slatina, Romania, to a Romanian father and a mother of French and Greek-Romanian heritage. Eugène's father was of the Orthodox religion. Ionesco's maternal grandmother was Greek-Orthodox but she converted to the religion of her husband, Protestantism, and Eugène's mother was raised a Protestant. Eugène himself was baptised into the Romanian Orthodox religion. Many sources cite his birthdate as 1912, this error being due to vanity on the part of Ionesco himself . He spent most of his childhood in France, but returned to Romania with his father in 1925 after his parents divorced. There he attended Saint Sava National College, after which he studied French Literature at the University of Bucharest from 1928 to 1933 and qualified as a teacher of French. While there he met Emil Cioran and Mircea Eliade, and the three became lifelong friends.
In 1936 Ionesco married Rodica Burileanu. Together they had one daughter for whom he wrote a number of unconventional children's stories. He and his family returned to France in 1938 for him to complete his doctoral thesis. Caught by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, he remained there, living in Marseille during the war before moving with his family to Paris after its liberation in 1944.
Ionesco was made a member of the Académie française in 1970 . He also received numerous awards including Tours Festival Prize for film, 1959; Prix Italia, 1963; Society of Authors Theatre Prize, 1966; Grand Prix National for theatre, 1969; Monaco Grand Prix, 1969; Austrian State Prize for European Literature, 1970; Jerusalem Prize, 1973; and honorary doctorates from New York University and the universities of Leuven, Warwick and Tel Aviv. Eugène Ionesco died at age 84 on March 29, 1994, and is buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse, in Paris. Although Ionesco wrote almost entirely in French, he is one of Romania's most honored artists.
 Ionesco the author
|French literary history|
 The origins of his first play
Like Samuel Beckett, Ionesco came to the theatre late: he did not write his first play until 1948 (La Cantatrice chauve, first performed in 1950 with the English title The Bald Soprano). At the age of 40 he decided to learn English using the Assimil method, conscientiously copying whole sentences in order to memorize them. Re-reading them, he began to feel that he was not learning English, rather he was discovering some astonishing truths such as the fact that there are seven days in a week, that the ceiling is up and the floor is down; things which he already knew, but which suddenly struck him as being as stupefying as they were indisputably true.
This feeling only intensified with the introduction in later lessons of the characters known as "Mr. and Mrs. Smith". To his astonishment, Mrs. Smith informed her husband that they had several children, that they lived in the vicinity of London, that their name was Smith, that Mr. Smith was a clerk, that they had a servant, Mary, who was English like themselves. What was remarkable about Mrs. Smith, he thought, was her eminently methodical procedure in her quest for truth. For Ionesco, the clichés and truisms of the conversation primer disintegrated into wild caricature and parody with language itself disintegrating into disjointed fragments of words. Ionesco set about translating this experience into a play, La Cantatrice Chauve, which was performed for the first time in 1950 under the direction of Nicolas Bataille. It was far from a success and went unnoticed until a few established writers and critics, among them Jean Anouilh and Raymond Queneau, championed the play.
 Early works
Ionesco's earliest works, and his most innovative, were one-act nonsense plays: La Cantatrice chauve (1950), La Leçon (1951), Les Chaises (1952), and Jacques ou la Soumission (1955). These absurdist sketches, to which he gave such descriptions as "anti-play" (anti-pièce in French) express modern feelings of alienation and the impossibility and futility of communication with surreal comic force, parodying the conformism of the bourgeoisie and conventional theatrical forms. In them Ionesco rejects a conventional story-line as their basis, instead taking their dramatic structure from accelerating rhythms and/or cyclical repetitions. He disregards psychology and coherent dialogue, thereby depicting a dehumanized world with mechanical, puppet-like characters who speak in non-sequiturs. Language becomes rarefied, with words and material objects gaining a life of their own, increasingly overwhelming the characters and creating a sense of menace.
 The full-length plays
With Tueur sans gages (1959; his second full-length play, the first being Amédée, ou Comment s'en débarrasser in 1954), Ionesco began to explore more sustained dramatic situations featuring more humanized characters. Notably this includes Bérenger, a central character in a number of Ionesco's plays, the last of which is Le Piéton de l'air.
Bérenger is a semi-autobiographical figure expressing Ionesco's wonderment and anguish at the strangeness of reality. He is comically naïve, engaging the audience's sympathy. In Tueur sans gages he encounters death in the figure of a serial killer. In Rhinocéros he watches his friends turning into rhinoceroses one by one until he alone stands unchanged against this tide of conformism. It is in this play that Ionesco most forcefully expresses his horror of ideological conformism, inspired by the rise of the fascist Iron Guard in Romania in the 1930s. Le Roi se meurt (1962) shows him as King Bérenger 1st, an everyman figure who struggles to come to terms with his own death.
 Later works
Ionesco's later work has generally received less attention. This includes La Soif et la faim (1966), Jeux de massacre (1971), Macbett (1972, a free adaptation of Shakespeare's Macbeth) and Ce formidable bordel (1973).
Apart from the libretto for the opera Maximilien Kolbe (music by Dominique Probst) which has been performed in five countries, filmed for television and recorded on CD, Ionesco did not write for the stage after Voyage chez les morts in 1981. However, La Cantatrice chauve is still playing at the Théâtre de la Huchette today, having moved there in 1952.
 Theoretical writings
Like Shaw and Brecht, Ionesco also contributed to the theatre with his theoretical writings (Wellwarth, 33). Ionesco wrote mainly in attempts to correct critics who he felt misunderstood his work and therefore wrongly influenced his audience. In doing so, Ionesco articulated ways in which he thought contemporary theatre should be reformed (Wellwarth, 33). Notes and Counter Notes is a collection of Ionesco's writings, including musings on why he chose to write for the theatre and direct responses to his contemporary critics.
In the first section, titled "Experience of the Theatre," Ionesco claimed to have hated going to the theatre as a child because it gave him "no pleasure or feeling of participation" (Ionesco, 15). He wrote that the problem with realistic theatre is that it is less interesting than theatre that invokes an "imaginative truth," which he found to be much more interesting and freeing than the "narrow" truth presented by strict realism (Ionesco, 15). He claimed that "drama that relies on simple effects is not necessarily drama simplified" (Ionesco, 28).
 Selected works
- Elegii pentru fiinte mici (1931)
- La Cantatrice chauve (1950, The Bald Soprano)
- Les Salutations (1950)
- La Leçon (1951, The Lesson)
- Les Chaises (1952, The Chairs)
- Le Maître (1953)
- Victimes du devoir (1953)
- La Jeune Fille à marier (1953)
- Amédée ou comment s'en débarrasser (1954)
- Jacques ou la soumission (1955, Jack, or the Submission)
- Le Nouveau Locataire (1955)
- Le Tableau (1955)
- L'Impromptu de l'Alma (1956)
- L'avenir est dans les œufs (1957)
- Tueur sans gages (1958, The Killer)
- Scène à quatre (1959)
- Apprendre à marcher (1960)
- Rhinocéros (1959, Rhinoceros)
- Délire à deux (1962)
- Le Roi se meurt (1962, Exit the King)
- Le Piéton de l'air (1963, A Stroll in the Air)
- La Soif et la faim (1964, Hunger and Thirst)
- La Lacune (1966)
- Jeux de massacre (1970)
- Macbett (1972)
- Productions, 1972 to present (in French)
- L'Homme aux valises (1975)
- Voyage chez les morts (1980, Journeys among the Dead)
 Essays and theoretical writings
- Nu (1934)
- Hugoliade (1935)
- La Tragédie du langage (1958)
- Expérience du théâtre (1958)
- Discours sur l'avant-garde (1959)
- Notes et contre-notes (1962, Notes and Counternotes)
- Fragments of a Journal (1966)
- Découvertes (1969)
- Antidotes (1977)
 Novels and stories
- La Vase (1956)
- Le Piéton de l'air (1961)
- La Photo du colonel (1962, The Colonel's Photograph and Other Stories)
- Le Solitaire (1973, The Hermit)
 Operatic adaptations and libretti
- Le Maître (1962) Music by Germaine Tailleferre of Les Six
- Maximilien Kolbe (1988) Music by Dominique Probst
 References and Notes
- ^ Eugène Ionesco's mother is sometimes said to be Jewish (for example in Who's Who in Jewish History, Routledge 1995, ISBN 0415125839 or the article "Ionesco Eugene" from Encyclopaedia Judaica). According to Marie France-Ionesco, Eugène's daughter, this is a misconception. Marie-Therese Ipcar's father was Jean Ipcar, a Lutheran from France and her mother was Aneta Ioanid, a Romanian woman of Greek parentage and Greek-Orthodox religion. Jean's biological father was a Frenchman of Lutheran religion named Emile Marin. His mother, Anna, later married a man named Sebastien Ipcher, from who Jean got his surname, a French-Catholic variation of "Ipcher" or "Ipchier." Rumors of Marie-Therese's Jewish origin, Marie-France writes, may have originated from the fact that her paternal grandmother's surname is disputed between the French Lebel or German-Jewish Lindenberg. Whether Eugène Ionesco's great-grandmother was Jewish or not, according to Marie-France, is unknown and irrelevant, especially in regard to Eugène Ionesco's positive view of Jews. - Marie-France Ionesco Portrait de l'écrivain dans le siècle: Eugène Ionesco, 1909-1994 (Gallimard - Arcades), 2004, ISBN 2070748103
- ^ Søren Olsen, Eugene Ionesco's life 
- The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French, (ISBN 0198661258)
- Ionesco : Théâtre complet, Pléiade edition (ISBN 2070111989)
- Wellwarth, George E. The dream and the Play
 External links
- The Ionesco Festival
- The Eugène Ionesco Homepage
- Eugène Ionesco: Man of the Theatre/Theatrical Man
- My Trip to Disneyland with Eugene Ionesco by Michael Dare
- special double issue on Ionesco: 
- (French) L'Académie française
- (French) Official site of Théâtre de La Huchette