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Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf DBE (December 9, 1915 – August 3, 2006) was a German-born Austrian/British opera singer. She was one of the leading sopranos of the post-World War II period, much admired for her performances of Mozart, Strauss and Hugo Wolf.
She was born in Jarotschin in the province of Posen in Prussia (since 1919 part of Poland) to Friedrich Schwarzkopf and his wife, Elisabeth Fröhling. Christened Olga Maria Elisabeth Frederike Schwarzkopf, Schwarzkopf showed an interest in music from an early age. She performed in her first opera in 1928, as Eurydice in a school production of Gluck's Orfeo ed Euridice in Magdeburg, Germany. In 1934, Schwarzkopf began her musical studies at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik. However at the suggestion of the baritone Karl Schmitt-Walter, she switched teachers and started working with the celebrated coloratura soprano Maria Ivogün as well as with her husband, the noted pianist Michael Raucheisen. Ivogün's advice to her new pupil was, "Be noble, my child!"
 Early career
Schwarzkopf made her professional debut at Berlin's State Opera on 15 April 1938, as the Second Flower Maiden (First Group) in Act II of Richard Wagner's Parsifal. She sang in Berlin for four years, during which time she became a member of the Nazi Party (a decision which later caused her to be boycotted in the United States for several years). However, she was always welcomed and acclaimed in countries other than the U.S.
In 1942, she joined the Vienna State Opera, where her roles included Konstanze in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail, Musetta and later Mimì in Giacomo Puccini's La bohème and Violetta in Giuseppe Verdi's La traviata.
 Post-war career
In 1945, Schwarzkopf was granted Austrian citizenship to enable her to sing in the Vienna State Opera (Wiener Staatsoper). In 1947 and 1948, Schwarzkopf appeared on tour with the Vienna State Opera at London's Royal Opera House at Covent Garden on 16 September 1947 as Donna Elvira in Mozart's Don Giovanni and at La Scala on 28 December 1948, as the Countess in Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro, which became one of her signature roles.
Schwarzkopf later made her official debut at the Royal Opera House on 16 January 1948, as Pamina in Mozart's Die Zauberflöte, in performances sung in English, and at La Scala on 29 June 1950 singing Beethoven's Missa Solemnis. Schwarzkopf's association with the Milanese house in the early 1950s gave her the opportunity to sing certain roles on stage for the only time in her career: Mélisande in Pelléas et Mélisande, Jole in Handel's Eracle, Marguerite in Gounod's Faust, Elsa in Wagner's Lohengrin, as well as her first Marschallin in Strauss' Der Rosenkavalier and her first Fiordiligi in Mozart's Così fan tutte at the Piccola Scala. On 11 September 1951, she appeared as Anne Trulove in the world premiere of Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress. Schwarzkopf made her American debut with the San Francisco Opera on 20 September 1955 as the Marschallin, and her debut at the Metropolitan Opera on 19 December 1964, also as the Marschallin.
In March 1946, Schwarzkopf was invited to audition for Walter Legge, a classical music producer and a founder of the Philharmonia. He asked her to sing Hugo Wolf's lied Wer rief dich denn? and Legge signed her to an exclusive contract with EMI. They began a close partnership and Legge subsequently became Schwarzkopf's manager and companion. They were married on 19 October 1953 in Epsom, Surrey; Schwarzkopf thus acquired British citizenship by marriage. Schwarzkopf would divide her time between lieder recitals and opera performances for the rest of her career.
In the 1960s, Schwarzkopf concentrated nearly exclusively on five operatic roles: Donna Elvira in Don Giovanni, Countess Almaviva in Le nozze di Figaro, Fiordiligi in Così fan tutte, Countess Madeleine in Strauss' Capriccio, and the Marschallin. She also was well received as Alice Ford in Verdi's Falstaff. However, on the EMI label she made several "champagne operetta" recordings like The Merry Widow and The Gypsy Baron.
Schwarzkopf's last operatic performance was as the Marschallin on 31 December 1971, in the theater of La Monnaie in Brussels. For the next several years, she devoted herself exclusively to lieder recitals.
After retiring, Schwarzkopf taught and gave master classes around the world, notably at the Juilliard School in New York. She was well-known for being an extremely demanding, exacting teacher. Some even called her methods unnecessarily harsh. After living in Switzerland for many years, she took up residence in Vorarlberg, Austria.
During her career, Schwarzkopf was much admired for her artistry and for her timeless beauty.
She leaves a discography that is considerable both in quality and in quantity and will be mostly remembered for her Mozart and Strauss portrayals, her two commercial recordings of Richard Strauss' Four Last Songs, and her countless recordings of lieder, especially those of Hugo Wolf.
- (After being asked about Peter Sellars) "There are names I do not want mentioned in my home. Do not say that name in my presence. I have seen what he has done, and it is criminal. As my husband used to say, so far no one has dared go into the Louvre Museum to spray graffiti on the Mona Lisa, but some opera directors are spraying graffiti over masterpieces." — Newsweek interview, 15 October 1990
- "Many composers today don't know what the human throat is. At Bloomington, Indiana, I was invited to listen to music written in quarter tones for four harps and voices. I had to go out to be sick." — Newsweek interview, 15 October 1990
- When invited in 1958 to select her eight favourite records on the BBC's Desert Island Discs, Schwarzkopf chose seven of her own recordings as they evoked fond memories of the people she had worked with. This apparently narcissistic choice was due to the influence of her husband Walter Legge. In private, she remarked that she disliked many of her recordings.
- A widely propagated urban myth is that she was an aunt of Norman Schwarzkopf, which was published in several obituaries. However, the parents of Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr. were Julius George Schwarzkopf and Agnes Sarah Schmidt whereas Elisabeth's were Friedrich Schwarzkopf and Elisabeth Fröhling. Also, Elisabeth was an only child.
 Further reading
- Jefferson, Alan Elisabeth Schwarzkopf Northeastern University Press (August 1996) ISBN 1-55553-272-1 Chapter One extract
- Legge, Walter; postscript by Schwarzkopf, Elisabeth; ed. Sanders, Alan Walter Legge: Words and Music Routledge (1998) ISBN 0-415-92108-2
- Sanders, Alan and Steane, John B Elisabeth Schwarzkopf: A Career on Record Amadeus Pr (January 1996) ISBN 0-931340-99-3
- Schwarzkopf, Elisabeth Les autres soirs Tallandier (Aug 16 2004) ISBN 2-84734-068-8
- Schwarzkopf, Elisabeth On and Off the Record: A Memoir of Walter Legge Faber and Faber Ltd (Dec 31 1982) ISBN 0-571-11928-X; Scribner (March 1982) ISBN 0-684-17451-0; (paperback) ISBN 0-571-14912-X; University of British Columbia Press (Jan 1 2002) ISBN 1-55553-519-4
Recordings include the following.
- Hänsel und Gretel (Karajan) (1953) Naxos 8.110897-98
- Das Land des Lächelns (Ackermann) (1953) and excerpts from Lehar Operettas Naxos 8.111016-17
- Die lustige Witwe (Kunz, Gedda) (1953) Naxos 8.111007
- Don Giovanni (Carlo Maria Giulini, Philharmonia Orchestra) (EMI 1959)
- Le nozze di Figaro (Carlo Maria Giulini, Philharmonia Orchestra) (EMI 1959)
- Così fan tutte (Otto, Karajan) (1954) Naxos 8.111232-34
- Die Fledermaus (Gedda, Karajan) (1955) Naxos 8.111036-37
- Four Last Songs / Arabella (highlights) (Ackermann, Matacic) (1953, 1954) Naxos 8.111145
- Ariadne auf Naxos (Streich, Karajan) (1954) Naxos 8.111033-34
- Messa da Requiem (Di Stefano, De Sabata) (1954) Naxos 8.111049-50
- Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (Karajan) (1951) Naxos 8.110872-75
Elisabeth's Discography (says it is incomplete but still a useful source)
 Notes and references
- ^ The Guardian (Michael H Kater) Triumph of the wilful 24 August 2006
- ^ The Independent letters page (Colin Cooper) Schwarzkopf and Callas: no rivalry 7 August 2006
- ^ This urban myth was included in, for example, William J. Kole Famed Soprano Elisabeth Schwarzkopf Dies, Associated Press obituary via Forbes, 3 August 2006, and Tom Huizenga, Soprano Schwarzkopf Dies at 90 (link to audio), National Public Radio, 3 August 2006.
 External links
- Bach Cantatas biography
- BBC Obituary: Elisabeth Schwarzkopf
- The Guardian (Alan Blyth) Obituary: Elisabeth Schwarzkopf
- The Times Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf (obituary)
- The Telegraph Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf (obituary)
- Washington Post (Adam Bernstein) Renowned Coloratura Soprano Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, 90 (obituary)
- The New York Times (Anthony Tommasini) Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, Opera Singer, Dies at 90 (obituary) (requires registration)
- Elizabeth Schwarzkopf (Sony biography)
- The Gramophone Elisabeth Schwarzkopf dies, aged 90
- Washington Post (Tim Page) The Plaintive Last Song of Elisabeth Schwarzkopf (appreciation)
- Norman Lebrecht Schwarzkopf's Career Had Somber Side
- BBC Soprano Schwarzkopf dies aged 90
- BBC Diva's 'place in history assured'
- The Guardian (Charlotte Higgins) Elisabeth Schwarzkopf dies at 90
- Film credits
- BBC database entry
- Prewar photo of Schwarzkopf as Zerbinetta (scroll down)