Cuba

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República de Cuba
Republic of Cuba
Flag of Cuba Coat of arms of Cuba
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Patria o Muerte  (Spanish)
"Homeland or Death" a
Anthem
La Bayamesa  ("The Bayamo Song")
Location of Cuba
Capital
(and largest city)
Havana
23°8′N, 82°23′W
Official languages Spanish
Government Socialist republicb
 -  President of the
   Council of State
Fidel Castro
Raúl Castro (acting)
Independence from Spain 
 -  Declaredc October 10, 1868 
 -  Republic declared May 20, 1902 
 -  Cuban Revolution January 1, 1959 
Area
 -  Total 110,861 km² (105th)
42,803 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2006 estimate 11,382,820 (73rd)
 -  2002 census 11,177,743 
 -  Density 102 /km² (97th)
264 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total 39.17 billion (not ranked)
 -  Per capita $3,900 (not ranked)
HDI (2004) 0.826 (high) (50th)
Currency Peso (CUP)
Convertible peso d (CUC)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 -  Summer (DST) (Starts March 11; ends November 4) (UTC-4)
Internet TLD .cu
Calling code +53
a As shown on the obverse of the 1992 coin[1] (Note that the Spanish word "Patria" is better translated into English as "Homeland" rather than "Fatherland" or "Motherland").
b[2] states that "Cuba is an independent and sovereign socialist state [Article 1]... the name of the Cuban state is Republic of Cuba [Article 2]". The usage "socialist republic" to describe the style of government of Cuba is nearly uniform, though forms of government have no universally agreed typology. For example, Atlapedia[3] describes it as "Unitary Socialist Republic"; Encyclopedia Britannica[4] omits the word "unitary", as do most sources.
c At the start of the Ten Years' War.
d From 1993 to 2004, the U.S. dollar was used in addition to the peso until the dollar was replaced by the convertible peso.

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba (Spanish: Cuba or República de Cuba, IPA: [re'puβlika ðe ˈkuβa]), consists of the island of Cuba (the largest of the Greater Antilles), the Isle of Youth and adjacent small islands. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean at the confluence of the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Cuba is south of the eastern United States and the Bahamas, west of the Turks and Caicos Islands and Haiti and east of Mexico. The Cayman Islands and Jamaica are to the south.

Cuba is the most populous country in the Caribbean. Its culture and customs draw from several sources including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves, and its proximity to the United States. The island has a tropical climate that is moderated by the surrounding waters; however, the warm temperatures of the Caribbean Sea and the fact that Cuba itself almost completely blocks access to the Gulf of Mexico, make Cuba prone to frequent hurricanes.

Contents

History

Statue of Hatuey, a Taíno chieftain - Baracoa, Cuba
Statue of Hatuey, a Taíno chieftain - Baracoa, Cuba

The recorded history of Cuba began on 28 October 1492, when Christopher Columbus sighted the island during his first voyage of discovery and claimed it for Spain.[5] (This is still not certain and is an unresolved topic.[6])The island had been inhabited by Amerindian peoples known as the Taíno and Ciboney whose ancestors had come from South America several centuries before. The Taíno were farmers and the Ciboney (also written Siboney neo-Taino nations) were both farmers and hunter-gatherers; some have suggested that copper trade was significant and mainland artifacts [2] have been found in proximal Taino cultures.

The coast of Cuba was fully mapped by Sebastián de Ocampo in 1511, and in that year the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns, including Havana (founded in 1515), soon followed. The Spanish, as they did throughout the Americas, oppressed and enslaved the approximately 100,000 indigenous people that resisted conversion to Christianity on the island. Within a century they had all but disappeared as a distinct nation as a result of the combined effects of European introduced disease, forced labor and genocide, though aspects of the region's aboriginal heritage has survived in part via the rise of a significant Mestizo population.[7][8] With destruction of aboriginal society, the settlers began to exploit abducted African slaves, with more resistance to the diseases from the old world, and who soon made up a significant proportion of the inhabitants.

Colonial Cuba

Cuba was a Spanish possession for 388 years, ruled by a governor in Havana, with an economy based on plantation agriculture and the export of sugar, coffee and tobacco to Europe and later to North America. It was seized by the British in 1762, but restored to Spain the following year. The Spanish population was boosted by settlers leaving Haiti when that territory was ceded to France. As in other parts of the Spanish Empire, a small land-owning elite of Spanish-descended settlers held social and economic power, supported by a population of plebian creoles, mixed-race small farmers, laborers and African-descended slaves.

In the 1820s, when the other parts of Spain’s empire in Latin America rebelled and formed independent states, Cuba remained loyal, although there was some agitation for independence. This was partly because the prosperity of the Cuban settlers depended on their export trade to Europe, partly through fears of a slave rebellion (as had happened in Haiti) if the Spanish withdrew and partly because the Cubans feared the rising power of the United States more than they disliked Spanish colonial rule.

Cuba’s proximity to the U.S. has been a powerful influence on its history. Throughout the 19th century, Southern politicians in the U.S. plotted the island’s annexation as a means of strengthening the pro-slavery forces in the U.S., and there was usually a party in Cuba which supported such a policy. In 1848, a pro-annexationist rebellion was defeated and there were several attempts by annexationist forces to invade the island from Florida. There were also regular proposals in the U.S. to buy Cuba from Spain. During the summer of 1848, President James Knox Polk quietly authorized his ambassador to Spain, Romulus Mitchell Saunders, to negotiate the purchase of Cuba and offer Spain up to $100 million, an astonishing sum of money at the time for one territory. Spain, however, refused to consider ceding one of its last possessions in the Americas.

Castillo de los Tres Reyes del Morro (Morro Castle (fortress), built in 1589 to guard the eastern entrance to Havana bay).
Castillo de los Tres Reyes del Morro (Morro Castle (fortress), built in 1589 to guard the eastern entrance to Havana bay).

After the American Civil War apparently ended the threat of pro-slavery annexationism, agitation for Cuban independence from Spain revived, leading to a rebellion in 1868. This resulted in a prolonged conflict known as the Ten Years' War between pro-independence forces and the Spanish, allied with their local supporters. There was much sympathy in the U.S. for the independence cause, and some unofficial aid was sent, but the U.S. declined to intervene militarily. In 1878, the Peace of Zanjon ended the conflict, with Spain promising greater autonomy to Cuba.

The island was exhausted after this long conflict and pro-independence agitation temporarily died down. There was also a prevalent fear that if the Spanish withdrew or if there was further civil strife, the increasingly expansionist U.S. would step in and annex the island. Partly in response to U.S. pressure, slavery was abolished in 1886, although the African-descended minority remained socially and economically oppressed, despite formal civic equality granted in 1893. During this period, rural poverty in Spain led to a substantial Spanish emigration to Cuba — among those arriving were the parents of Fidel Castro.

During the 1890s, pro-independence agitation revived, fueled by resentment of the restrictions imposed on Cuban trade by Spain and hostility to Spain’s increasingly oppressive and incompetent administration of Cuba. In April 1895, rebellion broke out led by the poet José Martí and Tomás Estrada Palma who proclaimed Cuba an independent republic — Martí was killed shortly thereafter and has become Cuba’s undisputed national hero. The Spanish retaliated with a campaign of suppression, herding the rural population into what were described by international observers as "fortified towns". Estimates that between 200,000 and 400,000 Cubans died from emaciation and disease during this period. These numbers were verified by both the Red Cross and the U.S. Senator, and former War Secretary, Redfield Proctor. U.S. and European protests against Spanish conduct on the island followed.[9]

In 1897, fearing U.S. intervention, Spain moved to a more conciliatory policy, promising home rule with an elected legislature. The rebels rejected this offer and the war for independence continued. Shortly afterwards, on 15 February 1898, the U.S. battleship Maine was mysteriously blown up in Havana harbor, killing 266 men. Forces in the U.S. favoring intervention in Cuba seized on this incident to accuse Spain of blowing up the ship (although Spain had no motive for doing so and there was no evidence of Spanish culpability). Swept along on a wave of nationalist sentiment, the U.S. Congress passed a resolution calling for intervention and President William McKinley was quick to comply.

The result was the Spanish-American War, in which U.S. forces landed in Cuba in June 1898 and quickly overcame Spanish resistance. In August a peace treaty was signed under which Spain agreed to withdraw from Cuba. Some advocates in the U.S. supported Cuban independence, while others argued for outright annexation. As a compromise, the McKinley administration placed Cuba under a 20-year U.S. treatie. The Cuban independence movement bitterly opposed this arrangement, but unlike the Philippines, where events had followed a similar course, there was no outbreak of armed resistance.

Independence

Theodore Roosevelt, who had fought in the Spanish-American War and had some sympathies with the independence movement, succeeded McKinley as President of the United States in 1901 and abandoned the 20-year treaty proposal. Instead, the Republic of Cuba gained formal independence on 20 May 1902, with the independence leader Tomás Estrada Palma becoming the country’s first president. Under the new Cuban constitution, however, the U.S. retained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and to supervise its finances and foreign relations. Under the Platt Amendment, Cuba also agreed to lease to the U.S. the naval base at Guantánamo Bay.

Independent Cuba soon ran into difficulties as a result of factional disputes and corruption among the small educated elite and the failure of the government to deal with the deep social problems left behind by the Spanish. In 1906, following disputed elections to choose Estrada Palma’s successor, an armed revolt broke out and the U.S. exercised its right of intervention. The country was placed under U.S. occupation and a U.S. governor took charge for three years. In 1908 self-government was restored when José Miguel Gómez was elected President, but the U.S. retained its supervision of Cuban affairs. Despite frequent outbreaks of disorder, however, constitutional government was maintained until 1925, when Gerardo Machado y Morales, having been elected President, suspended the constitution.

Great Theater of Havana, Garcia Lorca
Great Theater of Havana, Garcia Lorca

Machado was a Cuban nationalist and his regime had considerable local support despite its violent suppression of critics. During his tenure, Cubans gained greater control over their own economy and some important national development projects were undertaken. His hold on power was weakened by the Great Depression, which drove down the price of Cuba’s agricultural exports and caused widespread poverty. In August 1933, elements of the Cuban army staged a coup which deposed Machado and installed Carlos Manuel de Céspedes (whose father was instrumental in initiating the Ten Years War of independence) as President. In September, however, a second coup led by Sergeant Fulgencio Batista overthrew Céspedes leading to the formation of the first Ramón Grau San Martín government. This government lasted just 100 days, but engineered radical liberal changes in Cuban society and a rejection of the Platt amendment.

In 1934, Batista and the army, who were the real center of power in Cuba, replaced Grau with Carlos Mendieta y Montefur. In 1940, Batista decided to run for President himself. The leader of the constitutional liberals Ramón Grau San Martín refused to support him, so he turned instead to the Communist Party of Cuba, which had grown in size and influence during the 1930s.

With the support of the Communist-controlled labor unions, Batista was elected President and his administration carried out major social reforms and introduced a new progressive constitution. Several members of the Communist Party held office under his administration. Batista's administration formally took Cuba into World War II as a U.S. ally, declaring war on Japan on Dec 9, 1941, then on Germany/Italy on Dec 11, 1941; Cuba, however, did not significantly participate militarily in World War II hostilities. At the end of his term in 1944, in accordance with the constitution, Batista stood down and Ramón Grau was elected to succeed him. Grau initiated increased government spending on health, education and housing. But Grau’s liberals were bitter enemies of the Communists and Batista opposed most of Grau’s program.

In 1948, Grau was succeeded by Carlos Prío Socarrás, who had been Grau’s minister of labor and was particularly hated by the Communists. Prío was a less principled liberal than Grau and, under his administration, corruption increased. This was partly a result of the postwar revival of U.S. wealth and the consequent influx of gambling money into Havana, which became a center of mafia operations. Nevertheless Prío carried out major reforms such as founding a National Bank and stabilizing the Cuban currency. The influx of North American money fueled a boom which did much to raise living standards, although the gap between rich and poor became wider and more obvious.

From Batista to Castro

Bullet ridden truck used in the attack on the Presidential Palace in Havana by the Directorio Revolucionario and the Organizacion Autentica in 1957
Bullet ridden truck used in the attack on the Presidential Palace in Havana by the Directorio Revolucionario and the Organizacion Autentica in 1957

The 1952 election was a three-way race. Roberto Agramonte of the Ortodoxos party led in all the polls, followed by Dr. Aurelio Hevia of the Auténtico party, and running a distant third was Batista, who was seeking a return to office. When it became apparent that Batista had little chance of winning, he staged a coup on 10 March 1952 and held power with the backing of a nationalist section of the army as a “provisional president” for the next two years. In 1954, under pressure from the U.S., he agreed to elections. The Partido Auténtico put forward ex-President Grau as their candidate, but he withdrew amid allegations that Batista was rigging the elections in advance. Batista could then claim to be an elected President. His regime was marked by severe corruption and poverty. Batista's police force was well-known for their harsh tactics and violence against the population. Fidel Castro directed failed resistance action at the Moncada Barracks, in Santiago de Cuba, and on the smaller Carlos Manuel de Cespedes Barracks and on the feast of Saint Ann July 26, 1953.[10]

Many Florida-based American mafiosi established themselves in Cuba under Batista's rule, notably prominent mob boss Santo Trafficante, Jr. Their operations included legitimate hotels and casinos as well as all manners of illicit businesses. The American mobsters became influential supporters of Batista in Cuban politics, whose government tolerated their activities in exchange for bribes and kickbacks.

In 1956 a party of rebels, including Fidel Castro, landed in a boat from Mexico and tried to start an armed resistance movement in the Sierra Maestra. (Castro had gone to Mexico after being released from prison, where he was serving a sentence for his part in a 1953 rebel attack on the Moncada Barracks in Santiago de Cuba.) Batista’s forces killed most of the rebels, but enough survived to maintain a low-level insurgency in the mountains. In response, Batista made the mistake of launching a campaign of repression against the opposition, which only served to increase support for the insurgency.

Presidential Palace in Havana, now the Museum of the Revolution
Presidential Palace in Havana, now the Museum of the Revolution

Through 1957 and 1958, opposition to Batista grew, among the middle class and the students, in the Catholic Church and in the rural areas. The United States government imposed an arms embargo on the Cuban government on March 14, 1958. By late 1958, the rebels had succeeded in breaking out of the Sierra Maestra and launched a general insurrection, joined by hundreds of students and others fleeing Batista’s crackdown on dissent in the cities. When the rebels captured Santa Clara, east of Havana, Batista decided the struggle was futile and fled the country to exile in Portugal and later Spain. Castro’s rebel forces entered the capital on January 1, 1959.

Cuba following revolution

Fidel Castro became Prime Minister of Cuba in February 1959, and has held effective power in the country until temporarily handing it over to his brother, Raul Castro, for medical reasons in July 2006. During 1959, Castro’s government carried out measures such as land reform, the nationalization of public utilities, and the suppression of the widespread corruption that had developed under Batista, including closing down the gambling industry and evicting the many Florida-based American mobsters operating on the island.

Castro flew to Washington, DC, but was not met by President Eisenhower, who decided to attend a golf tournament rather than meet with Castro.[3] Summary executions of suspected Batista collaborators, coupled with the seizure of Cuban-owned businesses and the rapid demise of the independent press, nominally attributed to the powerful pro-revolution printing unions,[11] raised questions about the nature of the new government. Attitudes towards the Cuban revolution in the United States were changing rapidly. The nationalization of U.S.-owned companies (to an estimated value of US$1 billion[citation needed]) aroused immediate hostility within the Eisenhower administration. Cuban exiles formed a burgeoning expatriate community in Miami. Many were angry at the revolutionary government due to its seizure of their property in Cuba and the deaths of friends and relatives and they soon formed a powerful political lobbying group in the United States. The United States government became increasingly hostile towards Cuba throughout 1959. This, in turn, may have influenced Castro's movement away from the liberal elements of his revolutionary movement and increase the power of hardline Marxist figures in the government, notably Che Guevara.

In October 1959, Castro openly declared himself to be friendly towards Communism, though he did not yet claim to be a Communist himself, and the liberal and other anti-Communist elements of the government were purged, with many who had initially supported the revolution fleeing the country to join the growing exile community in Miami. In March 1960, the first aid agreements were signed with the Soviet Union. In the context of the Cold War, the U.S. saw the establishment of a Soviet base of influence in the Americas as a threat and plans were approved to remove Castro from power (see The Cuban Project). In late 1960, a trade embargo was imposed, which strengthened Castro's ties with the Soviet Union. At the same time, the administration authorized plans for an invasion of Cuba by Florida-based exiles, taking advantage of anti-Castro uprisings which were repressed (see some details and references in War Against the Bandits and Bay of Pigs Invasion). The result was the disastrous Bay of Pigs Invasion of April 1961. President John Kennedy withdrew promised US air support for the invading force at the last minute and the populist anti-Castro uprising failed to materialize. Kennedy refused direct American military intervention and the invasion force was routed. This prompted Castro to declare Cuba a socialist republic, and himself a Marxist-Leninist in May of 1961.

Marxist-Leninist Cuba

A so-called 'yank tank', one of the many remaining U.S. cars in Cuba, imported prior to the United States embargo against Cuba.
A so-called 'yank tank', one of the many remaining U.S. cars in Cuba, imported prior to the United States embargo against Cuba.

One immediate strategic result of the Cuban-Soviet alliance was the decision to place Soviet intermediate range ballistic missiles in Cuba, which precipitated the Cuban missile crisis of 1962, during which U.S. President John F. Kennedy threatened the Soviet Union with nuclear war unless the missiles were withdrawn. Castro urged the Soviets to take an aggressive stance. Eventually the Soviets backed down. In the aftermath of this, there was a resumption of contacts between the U.S. and Castro, resulting in the release of the anti-Castro fighters captured at the Bay of Pigs in exchange for a package of aid. But during 1963, relations deteriorated again as Castro moved Cuba towards a fully-fledged Communist system modeled on the Soviet Union. The U.S. imposed a complete diplomatic and commercial embargo on Cuba. At this time U.S. influence in Latin America was strong enough to make the embargo very effective and Cuba was forced to direct virtually all its trade to the Soviet Union and its allies.

In 1965, Castro merged his revolutionary organizations with the Communist Party, of which he became First Secretary, with Blas Roca as Second Secretary — later to be succeeded by Raúl Castro, who as Defense Minister and Fidel’s closest confidant became and has remained the second most powerful figure in the government. Raúl Castro’s position was strengthened by the departure of Che Guevara to launch unsuccessful attempts at insurrectionary movements in Congo, and then Bolivia, where he was killed in 1967. Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado, President of Cuba from 1959 to 1976, was a figurehead of little importance. Castro introduced a new constitution in 1976 under which he became President himself, while remaining chairman of the Council of Ministers.

During the 1970s, Castro moved onto the world stage as a leading spokesperson for Third World “anti-imperialist” governments. On a more concrete level, he provided invaluable military assistance to pro-Soviet forces in Angola, Ethiopia, Yemen and other African and Middle Eastern trouble spots. Cuban forces were decisive in helping the MPLA forces win the Angolan Civil War in 1975. Although the bills for these expeditionary forces were paid by the Soviets, they placed a considerable strain on Cuba’s economy and manpower resources. Cuba was also hampered by its continuing dependency on sugar exports. The Soviets were forced to provide further economic assistance by buying the entire Cuban sugar crop, even though the Soviet Union grew enough sugar beet to meet its own needs. In exchange the Soviets had to supply Cuba with all its fuel, since it could not import oil from any other source.

Cuba’s economic dependence on the Soviet Union was deepened by Castro’s determination to build his vision of a socialist society in Cuba. This entailed the provision of free health care and education for the entire population. Through the 1970s and 1980s, the Soviets were prepared to subsidise all this in exchange for the strategic asset of an ally under the noses of the United States and the undoubted propaganda value of Castro’s considerable prestige in the developing world.

Fidel Castro and Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau join together in song, January 1976.
Fidel Castro and Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau join together in song, January 1976.

By the 1970s, the ability of the U.S. to keep Cuba isolated was declining. Cuba had been expelled from the Organization of American States in 1962 and the OAS had cooperated with the U.S. trade boycott for the next decade, but, in 1975, the OAS lifted all sanctions against Cuba and both Mexico and Canada defied the U.S. by developing closer relations with Cuba. Both countries said that they hoped to foster liberalization in Cuba by allowing trade, cultural and diplomatic contacts to resume — in this they were disappointed, since there was no appreciable easing of repression against domestic opposition. Castro did stop openly supporting insurrectionary movements against Latin American governments, although pro-Castro groups continued to fight the military dictatorships which then controlled most Latin American countries.

The Cuban exile community in the U.S. grew in size, wealth and power and politicized elements effectively opposed liberalization of U.S. policy towards Cuba. However, the efforts of the exiles to foment an anti-Castro movement inside Cuba, let alone a revolution there, met limited success. On Sunday, April 6, 1980, 7,000 Cubans stormed the Peruvian embassy in Havana seeking political asylum. On Monday, April 7, Fidel Castro granted permission for the emigration of Cubans seeking refuge in the Peruvian embassy.[12] On April 16 500 Cuban citizens left the Peruvian Embassy for Costa Rica. On April 21 many of those Cubans started arriving in Miami via private boats and were halted by the State Department on April 23. The boat lift continued, however, since Castro allowed anyone who desired to leave the country to do so through the port of Mariel and this emigration became known as the Mariel boatlift. In all, over 125,000 Cubans emigrated to the United States before the flow of vessels ended on June 15.[13]

Post-Cold War Cuba

The fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 dealt Cuba a giant economic blow. It led to another unregulated exodus of asylum seekers to the United States in 1994, but was eventually slowed to a trickle of a few thousand a year by the U.S.-Cuban accords. It again increased in 2004-06 although at a far slower rate than before. Castro’s popularity was severely tested by the aftermath of the Soviet collapse, which led to a cut off in aid, the loss of a guaranteed export market for Cuban sugar and the loss of a source of cheap imported oil. It also caused, as in all Communist countries, a crisis in confidence for those who believed that the Soviet Union was successfully “building socialism” and providing a model that other countries should follow. In Cuba, however, these events were not sufficient to persuade Cuban Communists that they should voluntarily give up power.

By the later 1990s the situation in the country had stabilized. By then Cuba had more or less normal economic relations with most Latin American countries and had improved relations with the European Union, which began providing aid and loans to the island. China also emerged as a new source of aid and support, even though Cuba had sided with the Soviets during the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. Cuba also found new allies in President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela and President Evo Morales of Bolivia, major oil and gas exporters.

Temporary transfer of duties

On July 31 2006, Fidel Castro delegated his duties as President of the Council of state, President of the Council of Ministers, First Secretary of the Cuban Communist Party and the post of commander in chief of the armed forces to his brother and First Vice President, Raúl Castro. This transfer of duties has been described as temporary while Fidel Castro recovers from surgery undergone after suffering from an "acute intestinal crisis with sustained bleeding". Fidel Castro was too ill to attend the nationwide commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Granma boat landing on December 2, 2006, which fuelled speculations that Castro had stomach cancer,[14] though Spanish doctor Dr. García Sabrido stated that his illness was a digestive problem and not terminal, after an examination of the subject on Christmas Day.[15]

On January 31, 2007, footage of Castro meeting with Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez was broadcast, where, according to international media reports, Castro "appeared frail but stronger than three months ago",[16] and the Cuban leader made a lengthy surprise appearance by phone on Chávez's radio talk show Aló Presidente the following month.[17] Though Castro loyalists in the Cuban government have maintained that he will stand in the 2008 elections to the Cuban National Assembly, speculation has continued as to whether he will ever return to power.[18]

A BBC reporter is among at least three international correspondents asked to leave.[19] At least three foreign correspondents based in Havana have been told they must leave the country because of their 'negative' reporting.

Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Cuba
Revolution Square: José Martí Monument designed by Enrique Luis Varela, sculpture by Juan José Sicre and finished in 1958.
Revolution Square: José Martí Monument designed by Enrique Luis Varela, sculpture by Juan José Sicre and finished in 1958.[20]

The Republic of Cuba is constitutionally defined as a socialist state guided by the principles of José Martí, and the political ideas of Marx, Engels and Lenin.[21] The present constitution also ascribes the role of the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC) to be the "leading force of society and of the state."[21] Members of both councils are elected by the National Assembly of People’s Power.[22] The President of Cuba, who is also elected by the Assembly, serves for a five-year term and there is no limit to the number of terms of office.[22] Fidel Castro has been President since the adoption of the current Constitution in 1976 when he replaced Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado. The Supreme Court of Cuba serves as the nation's highest judicial branch of government. It is also the court of last resort for all appeals from convictions in provincial courts.

Cuba's national legislature, the National Assembly of People's Power (Asamblea Nacional de Poder Popular), is the supreme organ of State power and has 609 members who serve five-year terms.[22] Candidates for the Assembly are approved by public referendum. All Cuban citizens over sixteen years of age who have not been found guilty of a criminal offense can vote. Article 131 of the Constitution states that voting shall be "through free, equal and secret vote". Article 136 states: "In order for deputies or delegates to be considered elected they must get more than half the number of valid votes cast in the electoral districts". Votes are cast by secret ballot and are counted in public view. Individual vote totals, which are invariably high, are not verified by non-partisan, independent, or non-state organs and observers. Nominees are chosen at local gatherings from multiple candidates before gaining approval from election committees. In the subsequent election, there is just one candidate for each seat, who must gain a majority to be elected.

No political party is permitted to nominate candidates or campaign on the island, though the Communist Party of Cuba has held five party congress meetings since 1975. In 1997, the party claimed 780,000 members, and representatives generally constitute at least half of the Councils of state and the National Assembly. The remaining positions are filled by candidates nominally without party affiliation. Other political parties campaign and raise finances internationally, whilst activity within Cuba by oppositional groups is minimal and illegal. While the Cuban constitution has language pertaining to freedom of speech, rights are limited by Article 62, which states that "None of the freedoms which are recognized for citizens can be exercised contrary to... the existence and objectives of the socialist state, or contrary to the decision of the Cuban people to build socialism and communism. Violations of this principle can be punished by law." Almost all adult Cubans participate in the community-based Committees for the Defense of the Revolution, which play a central role in daily life. These groups are designed to coordinate public projects, protect and ensure socialist ideology among the citizenry, and act as a neighbourhood watchdog against "counter-revolutionary" activity.

Havana City financial district
Havana City financial district

Since Cuba became a declared socialist republic in 1961, the United States Government has initiated various policy measures against Cuba which have had a considerable political and economic effect on the island; these have variously been designed to remove the leadership and to encourage Cuba to undertake political change towards a multi-party electoral process. The most significant of these measures is the United States embargo against Cuba and the subsequent Helms-Burton Act of 1996. Many believe that the Cuban government does not meet the minimal standards of a democracy, especially through its lack of multi-party contests for seats.[23] The Cuban government, its supporters and other observers within and outside Cuba argue that Cuba has a form of democracy, citing the extensive participation in the nomination process at the national and municipal level.

Human rights

Main article: Human rights in Cuba

The Cuban government has been accused of numerous human rights abuses, including torture, arbitrary imprisonment, unfair trials, and extra-judicial executions.[24] Dissidents complain of harassment and torture.[25] While the Cuban government placed a moratorium on capital punishment in 2001, it made an exception for perpetrators of an armed hijacking 2 years later. Groups like Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have issued reports on Cuban prisoners of conscience.[26] Opponents claim the Cuban government represses free expression by limiting access to the Internet.[27] The Cuban government denies the International Committee of the Red Cross access to its prisons and many human rights groups including Amnesty International are denied entry to Cuba. The United States is also accused of human rights violations in Cuban territory, in Guantánamo Bay.

Trade unions

There are nineteen trade unions in Cuba, with a membership totalling 98% of the island's workforce. Unions do not register with any state agency, and are self financed from monthly membership dues. Their supporters claim that union officers are elected on an open basis, and differing political views are found within each of the unions.[28] However, all unions are part of an organization called the Confederación de Trabajadores Cubanos (Confederation of Cuban Workers, CTC), which does maintain close ties with the state and the Communist Party. Supporters claim that the CTC allows workers to have their voice heard in government; opponents claim that the government uses it to control the trade unions and appoint their leaders. The freedom of workers to express independent opinions is also a subject of debate. Supporters of the system argue that workers' opinions have in fact shaped government policy on several occasions, as in a 1993 proposal for tax reform,[28] while opponents, citing studies by international labor organizations, point out that workers are required to pledge allegiance to the ideals of the Communist Party, and argue that the government systematically harasses and detains labor activists, while prohibiting the creation of independent (non-CTC affiliated) trade unions, that the leaders of attempted independent unions have been imprisoned, and that the right to strike is not recognized in the law.[29]

Provinces

Main article: Provinces of Cuba

Fourteen provinces and one special municipality (the Isla de la Juventud) now comprise Cuba. These in turn were formerly part of six larger historical provinces: Pinar del Río, Habana, Matanzas, Las Villas, Camagüey and Oriente. The present subdivisions closely resemble those of Spanish military provinces during the Cuban Wars of Independence, when the most troublesome areas were subdivided.

1 Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth)
2 Pinar del Río 9 Ciego de Ávila
3 La Habana (Havana) 10 Camagüey
4 Ciudad de la Habana (Havana City) 11 Las Tunas
5 Matanzas 12 Granma
6 Cienfuegos 13 Holguín
7 Villa Clara 14 Santiago de Cuba
8 Sancti Spíritus 15 Guantánamo

Geography

Main article: Geography of Cuba
Map of Cuba
Map of Cuba

Cuba is an archipelago of islands located in the Caribbean Sea, with the geographic coordinates 21°3N, 80°00W. Cuba is the principal island, which is surrounded by four main groups of islands. These are the Colorados, the Camagüey, the Jardines de la Reina and the Canarreos. The main island of Cuba constitutes most of the nation's land area (105,006 km² or 40,543 square miles) and is the seventeenth-largest island in the world by land area. The second largest island in Cuba is the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the southwest, with an area of 3056 km² (1180 square miles). Cuba has a total land area of 110,860 km².

The main island consists mostly of flat to rolling plains. At the southeastern end is the Sierra Maestra, a range of steep mountains whose highest point is the Pico Real del Turquino at 2,005 metres (6,578 ft). The local climate is tropical, though moderated by trade winds. In general (with local variations), there is a drier season from November to April, and a rainier season from May to October. The average temperature is 21 °C in January and 27 °C in July. Cuba lies in the path of hurricanes, and these destructive storms are most common in September and October. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. Better known smaller towns include Baracoa which was the first Spanish settlement on Cuba, Trinidad, a UNESCO world heritage site, and Bayamo.

Society

Education

Main article: Education in Cuba
School children playing jump-rope in between classes at an elementary school in the Cuban countryside
School children playing jump-rope in between classes at an elementary school in the Cuban countryside

Historically, Cuba has had some of the highest rates of education and literacy in Latin America, both before and after the revolution.[30] All education is free of charge to Cuban citizens including university education. Private educational institutions are not permitted. School attendance is compulsory from ages six to sixteen and all students, regardless of age or gender, wear school uniforms with the color denoting grade level. Primary education lasts for six years, secondary education is divided into basic and pre-university education. Higher education is provided by universities, higher institutes, higher pedagogical institutes, and higher polytechnic institutes. The University of Havana was founded in 1728 and there are a number of other well established colleges and universities. The Cuban Ministry of Higher Education also operates a scheme of Distance Education which provides regular afternoon and evening courses in rural areas for agricultural workers. Education has a strong political and ideological emphasis, and students progressing to higher education are expected to have a commitment to the goals of the Cuban government.[31]

Public health

Main article: Healthcare in Cuba

The Cuban government operates a national health system and assumes full fiscal and administrative responsibility for the health care of its citizens. Historically, Cuba has long ranked high in numbers of medical personnel and has made significant contributions to world health since the 19th century. According to World Health Organization WHO statistics, life expectancy and infant mortality rates in Cuba have been comparable to Western industrialized countries since such information was first gathered in 1957. In depth examination of WHO statistics for Cuba reveals that these statistics are prepared by each government[32] and published unchanged by WHO; thus they have been called into question.[33]

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Cuba
A Chinese-Cuban girl in Havana's Barrio Chino
A Chinese-Cuban girl in Havana's Barrio Chino

According to the CIA World Factbook, Cuba is 51% mulatto (mixed white and black), 37% white, 11% black, and 1% Chinese. DNA studies throughout the Antilles region have suggested that the contribution of indigenous neo-Taíno Nations to the local populations may be more significant than formerly believed.[7]

According to Cuba's Oficina Nacional de Estadisticas ONE 2002 Census, the Cuban population was 11,177,743,[34] including 5,597,233 men and 5,580,510 women. The racial make-up was 7,271,926 whites, 1,126,894 blacks and 2,778,923 mulattoes (or mestizos).[35] The Chinese population in Cuba is descended mostly from laborers who arrived in the 19th century to build railroads and work in mines. After the Industrial Revolution, many of these laborers stayed in Cuba because they could not afford return passage to China.

The Cuban government controls the movement of people into Havana on the grounds that the Havana metropolitan area (home to nearly 20% of the country's population) is overstretched in terms of land use, water, electricity, transportation, and other elements of the urban infrastructure. There is a population of internal migrants to Havana nicknamed "Palestinos" (Palestinians); these mostly hail from the eastern region of Oriente.[36] Cuba also shelters a population of non-Cubans of unknown size. There is a population of several thousand North African teen and pre-teen refugees.[37]

Cuba's birth rate (11.6 births per thousand population in 2003)[38] is one of the lowest in the Western Hemisphere. Its overall population has increased continuously from around 7 million in 1961 to over 11 million now, but the rate of increase has slowed in the last decades. The decrease in fertility rate - from 3.2 children per woman in 1970 to 1.5 in 1992 - is the third greatest in the Western Hemisphere, with only Guadeloupe and Jamaica showing larger decreases.[39] Cuba, which has unrestricted access to legal abortion, has an abortion rate of 58.6 per 1000 pregnancies in 1996 compared to a Caribbean average of 35, a Latin American average of 27 (the latter mostly illegally performed), and a European average of 48. Additionally, contraceptive use is estimated at 79% (in the upper third of countries in the Western Hemisphere).[40]

Immigration and emigration have had noticeable effects on the demographic profile of Cuba during the 20th century. Between 1900 and 1930, close to a million Spaniards arrived from Spain. Since 1959, over a million Cubans have left the island, primarily to Miami, Florida, where a vocal, well-educated and economically successful exile community exists (Cuban-American lobby).[41] The emigration that occurred immediately after the Cuban Revolution was primarily of the upper and middle classes that were predominantly white, thus contributing to a demographic shift along with changes in birth rates and racial identifications among the various ethnic groups. Seeking to normalize migration between the two countries - particularly after the chaos that accompanied the Mariel boatlift - Cuba and the United States in 1994 agreed (in what is commonly called the 1994 Clinton-Castro accords[42]) to limit emigration to the United States. Under this, the United States grants a specific number of visas to those wishing to emigrate (20,000 since 1994) while those Cubans picked up at sea trying to emigrate without a visa are returned to Cuba. U.S. law[43] gives the Attorney General the discretion to grant permanent residence to Cuban natives or citizens seeking adjustment of status if they have been present in the United States for at least 1 year after admission or parole and are admissible as immigrants;[citation needed] these escapes are often daring and most ingenious.[44][45] In 2005 an additional 7,610 Cuban emigrants from Cuba entered the United States by September 30.[citation needed] Citzens of Cuba must obtain an exit permit before they may leave the country.[citation needed] Human Rights Watch has criticized the Cuban restrictions on emigration and its alleged keeping of children as "hostages" in order to prevent defection by Cubans traveling abroad.[46]

Religion

Main article: Religion in Cuba
Catedral de San Cristóbal de la Habana (Cathedral of Saint Christopher of Havana)
Catedral de San Cristóbal de la Habana (Cathedral of Saint Christopher of Havana)

Cuba has a multitude of faiths reflecting the island’s diverse cultural elements. Catholicism, which was brought to the island by Spanish colonialists at the beginning of the 16th century, is the most prevalent professed faith. After the revolution, Cuba became an officially atheistic state and restricted religious practice. Since 1991, restrictions have been eased and, according to the National Catholic Observer, direct challenges by state institutions to the right to religion have all but disappeared,[47] though the church still faces restrictions of written and electronic communication, and can only accept donations from state-approved funding sources.[47] The Roman Catholic Church is made up of the Cuban Catholic Bishops' Conference (COCC), led by Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino, Cardinal Archbishop of Havana. It has eleven dioceses, 56 orders of nuns and 24 orders of priests. In January 1998, Pope John Paul II paid a historic visit to the island, invited by the Cuban government and Catholic Church.

The religious landscape of Cuba is also strongly marked by syncretisms of various kinds. This diversity derives from West and Central Africans who were transported to Cuba, and in effect reinvented their African religions. They did so by combining them with elements of the Catholic belief system, with a result very similar to Brazilian Umbanda. Catholicism is often practised in tandem with Santería, a mixture of Catholicism and other, mainly African, faiths that include a number of cult religions. Cuba’s patron saint, La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre (the Virgin of Cobre) is a syncretism with the Santería goddess Ochún. The important religious festival "La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre" is celebrated by Cubans annually on 8 September. Other religions practised are Palo Monte, and Abakuá, which have large parts of their liturgy in African languages.

Protestantism, introduced from the United States in the 18th century, has seen a steady increase in popularity. 300,000 Cubans belong to the island’s 54 Protestant denominations. Pentecostalism has grown rapidly in recent years, and the Assemblies of God alone claims a membership of over 100,000 people. The Episcopal Church of Cuba claims 10,000 adherents. Cuba has small communities of Jews, Muslims and members of the Bahá'í faith.[48] Havana has three active synagogues and one mosque. Most Jewish Cubans are descendants of Polish and Russian Jews who fled pogroms at the beginning of the 20th century. There is, however, a sizeable number of Sephardic Jews in Cuba, who trace their origin to Turkey (primarily Istanbul and Thrace). Most of these Sephardic Jews live in the provinces, although they do maintain a synagogue in Havana. In the 1960s, almost 8,000 Jews left for Miami. In the 1990s, approximately 400 Jewish Cubans relocated to Israel in a co-ordinated exodus using visas provided by nations sympathetic to their desire to move to Israel.

Economy

Main Articles: Economy of Cuba, Tourism in Cuba
A Cuban state hotel
A Cuban state hotel

The Cuban Government adheres to socialist principles in organizing its largely state-controlled planned economy. Most of the means of production are owned and run by the government and most of the labor force is employed by the state. Recent years have seen a trend towards more private sector employment. By the year 2000, public sector employment was 77.5% and the private sector at 22.5% compared to the 1981 ratio of 91.8% to 8.2%.[49] Capital investment is restricted and requires approval by the government. The Cuban government sets most prices and rations goods to citizens.

Since 1959 Cuban Revolution, citizens were not required to pay a personal income tax (their salaries being regarded as net of any taxes). However, from 1996, the State started to impose income taxes on Cubans earning hard currency, primarily the self-employed.[50]

In the early 1990s, the end of Communist rule in Eastern Europe meant the end of Soviet subsidies for Cuba's state-run economy. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba depended on Moscow for sheltered markets for its exports and substantial aid. The Soviets had been paying above-market prices for Cuban sugar, while providing Cuba with petroleum at below-market prices. The removal of these subsidies sent the Cuban economy into a rapid depression known in Cuba as the Special Period. In 1992, the United States tightened the trade embargo contributing to a drop in Cuban living standards which approached crisis point within a year.[51]

Like some other Communist and post-Communist states following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba took limited free market-oriented measures to alleviate severe shortages of food, consumer goods, and services to make up for the ending of Soviet subsidies. These steps included allowing some self-employment in certain retail and light manufacturing sectors, the legalization of the use of the U.S. dollar in business, and the encouragement of tourism. In 1996 tourism supassed the sugar industry as the largest source of hard currency for Cuba. Cuba has tripled its market share of Caribbean tourism in the last decade, with large investment in tourism infrastructure this growth rate is predicted to continue.[52] 1.9 million tourists visited Cuba in 2003 predominantly from Canada and the European Union, generating revenue of $2.1 billion.[53] The rapid growth of tourism during the Special Period had widespread social and economic repercussions in Cuba. This has led to speculation of the emergence of a two-tier economy[54] and the fostering of a state of tourist apartheid on the island.

At one time, Cuba was the world’s most important sugar producer and exporter. Production has fallen due to a series of hurricanes and droughts, which have devastated its crop area. In addition, a lack of investment in infrastructure has forced the closing of many mills.

In recent years, since the rise of Venezuela's democratic socialist President Hugo Chávez, Venezuelan economic aid has enabled Cuba to improve economically. Venezuela's assistance of the Cuban economy comes chiefly through its supply of up to 80,000 barrels of oil per day in exchange for professional services and agricultural products. In the last several years, Cuba has rolled back some of the market oriented measures undertaken in the 1990s. In 2004, Cuban officials publicly backed the Euro as a "global counter-balance to the U.S. dollar", and eliminated the US currency from circulation in its stores and businesses. Increased US government restrictions on travel by Cuban-Americans and on the numbers of dollars they could transport to Cuba strengthened Cuban government control over dollars circulating in the economy. In the last decade, Cubans had received between US$600 million and US$1 billion annually, mostly from family members in the U.S.[55]

Cuba, the largest of the Caribbean holiday islands, is becoming an increasingly popular tourist destination
Cuba, the largest of the Caribbean holiday islands, is becoming an increasingly popular tourist destination

As late as 2001, studies have shown that the average Cuban's standard of living was lower than before the downturn of the post-Soviet period. Paramount issues have been state salaries failing to meet personal needs under the state rationing system chronically plagued with shortages. As the variety and amount of rationed goods available declined, Cubans increasingly turned to the black market to obtain basic food, clothing, household, and health amenities. In addition, petty corruption in state industries, such as the pilferage of state assets to sell on the black market, is still common.[56]

In 2005 Cuba exported $2.4 billion, ranking 114 of 226 world countries, and imported $6.9 billion, ranking 87 of 226 countries.[57] Its major export partners are the Netherlands, Canada and China; major import partners are Venezuela, Spain and the United States.[58] Cuba's major exports are sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus, coffee and skilled labor;[59] imports include food, fuel, clothing, and machinery. Cuba presently holds debt in an amount estimated to be $13 billion,[60] approximately 38% of GDP.[61] According to the Heritage Foundation, Cuba is dependent on credit accounts that rotate from country to country.[62] Cuba's prior 35% supply of the world's export market for sugar has declined to 10% due to a variety of factors, including a global sugar commodity price drop making Cuba less competitive on world markets.[63] Cuba holds 6.4% of the global market for nickel[64] which constitutes about 25% of total Cuban exports.[65] Recently, large reserves of oil were found in the North Cuba Basin[66] leading US congress members Jeff Flake and Larry Craig to call for a repeal of the US embargo of Cuba.

Military

Main article: Military of Cuba

Under Fidel Castro, Cuba became a highly militarized society. From 1975 until the late 1980s, massive Soviet military assistance enabled Cuba to upgrade its military capabilities. Since the loss of Soviet subsidies Cuba has dramatically scaled down the numbers of military personnel, from 235,000 in 1994 to about 60,000 in 2003.[67] The government now spends roughly 1.7% of GDP on military expenditures. The present Minister for the Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) is Raúl Castro, Fidel Castro's brother, who had played a major part as a leader in the Cuban Revolution.

See also

Flag of Cuba.          Topics related to Cuba   [edit]
History Timeline | Colonial heads of Cuba | Ten Years' War | Spanish-American war | Relations with the U.S. | Platt amendment | Cuban revolution |
La Coubre explosion | Bay of Pigs Invasion | Cuban Missile Crisis | War Against the Bandits | Cubana Flight 455 |
Mariel boatlift | Special Period | 2006 Cuban transfer of presidential duties
Geography Provinces | Cities | Havana | Camaguey | Isla de la Juventud | Sierra Maestra
Politics Constitution | Presidency | Elections | Political parties | Communist Party of Cuba | Foreign relations | Relations with the U.S. |
Government Opposition | Military | Cuban Law | United States embargo against Cuba | Cuba Coalition
Economy Tourism in Cuba | Agriculture of Cuba | Cuban peso | Cuban convertible peso | CPA (agriculture) | Central Bank of Cuba |
National Institute of Agrarian Reform | United States embargo against Cuba | Cubana de Aviación | Communications | Transportation
Religion Santería | Palo Monte | Abakuá | Protestantism | syncretisms
Society Healthcare of Cuba | Education in Cuba | Human Rights in Cuba | Committees for the Defense of the Revolution |
Sociolismo | Rationing in Cuba | Scouting
Demographics Afro-Cubans | Taíno | Ciboney | Women in Cuba
Culture Cuban art | Literature of Cuba | Music of Cuba | Public holidays in Cuba | Cinema of Cuba | Newspapers | Radio Havana Cuba | Television | Baseball
Notable people Félix Varela | José Martí | Máximo Gómez | Gerardo Machado | Ramón Grau | Fulgencio Batista | Fidel Castro | Ernesto "Che" Guevara |
Raúl Castro | Elián González

Notes

  1. ^ Sonic.net. 1992 coin. Retrieved on September 26, 2006.
  2. ^ Government of Cuba. The Cuban constitution. Retrieved on January 29, 2007.
  3. ^ Atlapedia. Cuba.
  4. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica. Cuba. Retrieved on January 29, 2007.
  5. ^ Gott, Richard : Cuba A New History. Yale University Press. p13
  6. ^ Clements R. Markham, ed.. The Journal of Christopher Columbus (during His First Voyage,). ASIN: B000I1OMXM. 
  7. ^ a b An Interview On the Taino DNA testing in Puerto Rico. Profiles, Vol. 1, no. 2, 15 August 2000
    ° Cuban Site Casts Light on an Extinct People Anthony DePalma, The New York Times, 5 July 1998
    ° Gott, Richard Cuba: A new history, Yale University Press: 2004, p.7 "A third element in Cuba's ethnic mix, the trace of indigenous blood that runs through most of its people except for the most recent immigrants, has usually been ignored or denied. It is vigorously downplayed by most historians in Havana today, although those in Santiago are more freethinking. The official line, doggedly maintained over the years, in spite of increasing evidence to the contrary, is that the Tainos were destroyed during the early years of conquest. This is clearly not so."
  8. ^ DNA Genealogy, E. Elizondo "The mt-DNA haplogroup results were a complete surprise. The test results indicated that I descended on my maternal line from Siberian Eskimos who migrated across the Aleutian chain and Alaska and down to North and South America*. This contrasted with my genealogy research which showed that my oldest known female ancestor, Maria Obregon Ceballos, was born in the city of Trinidad, one of the oldest towns in Cuba -founded in 1514, presumably of Spanish ancestry." http://www.cubagenweb.org/dna.htm
  9. ^ The Spanish-American War. Cuban Reconcentration Policy and its Effects. Retrieved on January 29, 2007.
  10. ^ de La Cova, Antonio Rafael 2007 The Moncada Attack: Birth of the Cuban Revolution. University of South Carolina Press ISBN-10 1570036721 ISBN-13 978-1570036729
  11. ^ Thomas, Hugh (March 1971). Cuba; the Pursuit of Freedom. New York: Harper & Row, p855. ISBN 0060142596. 
  12. ^ The Daily News -- April 1980. The Eighties Club - The Politics and Pop Culture of the 1980s (April 1980). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  13. ^ The Daily News -- June 1980. The Eighties Club - The Politics and Pop Culture of the 1980s (June 1980). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  14. ^ Castro not dying, US envoys told. BBC News, 18 December 2006.
  15. ^ Castro does not have cancer, says Spanish doctor. Times Online. Retrieved on December 26, 2006.
  16. ^ Cuban TV shows 'stronger' BBC News. Castro
  17. ^ Ailing Castro says 'I feel good' BBC News.
  18. ^ Castro 'to be fit to hold power' BBC News.
  19. ^ [1]
  20. ^ Arquitectura y Urbanismo en la República de Cuba (1902-1958)…Antecedentes, Evolución y Estructuras de Apoyo. Retrieved on March 24, 2006.
  21. ^ a b Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, 1992. Cubanet.
  22. ^ a b c Inter-American commission on Human Rights
  23. ^ TITLE 22 > CHAPTER 69A > § 6021 U.S. Code Collection Cornell Law School, Ithaca N.Y,. Retrieved on March 7, 2007.
  24. ^ Information about human rights in Cuba (español). Comision Inteamericana de Dderechos Humanos (April 7 1967). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  25. ^ Castro sued over alleged torture. News from Russia (November 16 2005). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  26. ^ CUBA. Amnesty International Online Documentation Library. Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  27. ^ Cuba. Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved on January 27, 2007.
  28. ^ a b Is Cuba Democratic?. Cuba-solidarity.org. Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  29. ^ Cubaverdad.net. Workers Paradise. Trade Unions. Violations of Social and Labor. Retrieved on January 29, 2007.
  30. ^ Rennaissance and decay: A comparison of socioeconomic indicators. University of Texas. Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  31. ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/547664-1099080026826/The_Cuban_education_system_lessonsEn00.pdf The Cuban Education System: Lessons and Dilemmas. Human Development Network Education. World Bank.
  32. ^ Pan American Health Organization 2004 Observatory of Human resources in Health. 134th session of the executive committee. Washington, D.C. U.S.A, 21-25 June 2004 Provisional Agenda Item 4.3 CE134/11 (Eng.) 18th May 2004. http://www.paho.org/english/gov/ce/ce134-11-e.pdf page 5 item “10. Gaps in data collection and limitations of data sources undermine efforts to address these issues. Data are generally collected from existing sources, such as personnel registries of ministries of health and social security institutions…”
  33. ^ John Dorschner 2007 Nation's fabled healthcare may not be so healthy Miami Herald, January 28, 2007 p.1E
  34. ^ Government of Cuba (2002). Cuban Census. Retrieved on January 29, 2007.
  35. ^ DePalma, Anthony (July 5 1998). Cuban Site Casts Light on an Extinct People. New York Times. Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  36. ^ Castro’s Cuba in Perspective
  37. ^ Sahrawi children inhumanely treated in Cuba, former Cuban official. MoroccoTimes.com (March 31 2006). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  38. ^ Health in the Americas Vol 1, 1998 (PDF). paho.org (1998). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  39. ^ United Nations World Fertility Patterns 1997. un.org (1997). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  40. ^ Stanley K. Henshaw, Susheela Singh and Taylor Haas. The Incidence of Abortion Worldwide. International Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 25(Supplement):S30 – S38. Retrieved on May 11, 2006. This publication notes, however, that: The relatively high rate in Cuba (78 per 1,000 [women, per year]) includes menstrual regulation, an early abortion procedure carried out without pregnancy testing, as well as termination of known pregnancies. In 1996, 60% of the procedures were menstrual regulations.
  41. ^ Quiñones, Rolando García Quiñones. International Migrations in Cuba: persinting trends and changes. Technical Corporation. Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  42. ^ Bill Clinton 1993-2001. history.acusd.edu. Retrieved on February 9, 2006.
  43. ^ Cuban Natives or Citizens Seeking Lawful Permanent Resident Status. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (1996). Retrieved on May 6, 2006.
  44. ^ Dream Machine: Cub. Palm Beach Post. Retrieved on March 7, 2007.
  45. ^ Jane Sutton. Cubans sneak ashore during U.S. security drill. International Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 25(Supplement):S30 – S38. Retrieved on March 8, 2007. While hundreds of U.S. law enforcement agents intercepted imaginary Cuban migrants during a massive training exercise in south Florida, two boatloads of actual Cubans sneaked ashore on Miami Beach on Thursday.
  46. ^ Human Rights Overview: Cub. hrw.org. Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  47. ^ a b Catholic church in Cuba strives to reestablish the faith National Catholic Observer
  48. ^ Government officials visit Baha'i center. Baha'iWorldNewsService.com (June 13 2005).
  49. ^ Social Policy (PDF). oxfamamerica.org. Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  50. ^ New York Times (1995). Well-to-Do in Cuba to Pay an Income Tax. Retrieved on January 29, 2007.
  51. ^ Social Policy (PDF). oxfamamerica.org. Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  52. ^ Cuban tourism in 2007: economic impact. University of Texas. Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  53. ^ Background Note: Cuba. U.S. Department of State (December 2005). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  54. ^ http://www.uiowa.edu/ifdebook/conferences/cuba/TLCP/Volume%201/Facio.pdf Tourism in Cuba during the Special Period
  55. ^ Background Note: Cuba. U.S. Department of State (December 2005). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  56. ^ Schweimler, Daniel (May 4 2001). Cuba's anti-corruption ministry. BBC News. Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  57. ^ Rank Order Exports. CIA:The World Fact Book (June 29 2006). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  58. ^ Cuba. CIA World Fact Book (June 29 2006). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  59. ^ Cuba Exports - commodities. IndexMundi.vom (January 1 2005). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  60. ^ Calzon, Frank (March 13 2005). Cuba makes poor trade partner for Louisiana. ShreveportTimes.com. Retrieved on December 21, 2005.
  61. ^ Rank Order - GDP (purchasing power parity). CIA Fact Book (June 29 2006). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  62. ^ Cuba. heritage.org (2004). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  63. ^ Cuba’s Sugar Industry and the Impact of Hurricane Michele. International Agricultural Trade Report (December 6 2001). Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  64. ^ Global Nickel Mine Production 2002 (2002). Retrieved on August 23, 2006.
  65. ^ Frank, Marc (December 18 2002). Cuba's 2002 nickel exports top 70,000 tonnes. Center for International Policy. Retrieved on July 9, 2006.
  66. ^ Smith-Spark, Laura (2006). Cuba oil prospects cloud US horizon. BBC. Retrieved on December 9, 2006.
  67. ^ Cuban army called key in any post-Castro scenario Anthony Boadle Reuters 2006

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