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Left to right: Gazi Husrev-beg, Husein Gradaščević, Safvet-beg Bašagić, and Alija Izetbegović.
Total population

estimated 2.6 million+

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia/Herz. c.1,800,000 (2000) [1] [2]
Flag of Serbia Serbia 172,087 (2002)
(+19,503 Muslims)
[3] [4]
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro 48,184 (2003)
(+28,714 Muslims)
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia 21,542 (2002)
(+10,467 Muslims)
(+8,062 Bosnians)
Flag of Croatia Croatia 20,755 (2001)
(+19,677 Muslims)
Flag of Republic of Macedonia Rep. Macedonia 17,018 (2002) [8]
Flag of Germany Germany c.80,000 (2005) [9]
Flag of United States United States 98,766 [10]
Flag of Austria Austria 95,007 (2006)
Flag of Sweden Sweden 53,918 (2004) [11]
Flag of Australia Australia 18,000 (2001)
Flag of Norway Norway 15,216 (2006)
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 23,457 (2000) [12]
Flag of Turkey Turkey 17,627
Flag of Canada Canada 12,185 (2001)
Flag of Belgium Belgium 4,000 (2002) [13]
Flag of Spain Spain 2,038 (2006) [14]
Elsewhere in world c.100,000+
Predominantly Islam
Related ethnic groups
Slavs (South Slavs)
Coat of arms of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosniak culture

by region or country

Serbia · Kosovo
Montenegro · Slovenia
Macedonia · Croatia

Bosnian Genocide

Anti-Bosniak sentiment
Bosnian war · Srebrenica Massacre

Bosniak diaspora

Closely related peoples

Croats · Gorani · Montenegrins
Muslims by nationality · Serbs
South Slavs · Yugoslavs

Bosnian language

History of Bosniaks · Rulers

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The Bosniaks (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: [bɔ'ʃɲaːt͡si]) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present in Kosovo (province of Serbia) and Macedonia. Bosniaks are typically characterized by their tie to the Bosnian historical region, traditional adherence to Islam, and common culture and language.

Bosniaks belong to the Slavic ethnic group, but their genetic make-up is a mixture of Slav settlers, and descendants of pre-Slavic indigenous Illyrian tribes and, to a significantly smaller extent, Celts and Germanic tribes (Goths) who spanned the Balkans for distinct periods.[citation needed]

There are more than two million Bosniaks living in the Balkans today. Once spread throughout the regions they inhabited, various instances of ethnic cleansing have had a tremendous effect on the territorial distribution of their population. Partially due to this, a notable Bosniak Diaspora exists in a number of countries, including Austria, Germany, Sweden, Turkey and the United States. Both within the region and the outside world, Bosniaks are often noted for their unique culture, which has been impacted by both eastern and western civilizations and schools of thought over the course of their history.

In the English-speaking world, Bosniaks are also referred to as Bosnians or Bosnian Muslims. The term Bosnian is somewhat imprecise in this context, as it is used to denote all inhabitants of Bosnia regardless of ethnic origin (i.e. not only Bosniaks, but also Serbs, Croats or any other group in the country). The term Bosnian Muslim is considered antiquated and, in certain situations, even mildly offensive due to its implied religious identification and the Bosniaks' historical struggle for national recognition.


[edit] Etymology and definition

The earliest Bosnian "name" was the historical term "Bošnjanin" (Latin: Bosniensis), which signified an inhabitant of the medieval Bosnian kingdom. By the early days of Ottoman rule, the word had been replaced by "Bosniak" (Bošnjak).[1] No consensus exists as to whether the word Bosniak emerged as a Turkified variation of the old Slavic Bošnjanin or as a local linguistic progression where the suffix "-iak" replaced the traditional "-anin".

For the duration of Ottoman rule, the word Bosniak came to refer to all inhabitants of Bosnia; Turkish terms such as "Bosniak-milleti", "Bosniak-kavmi", and "Bosniak-taifesi", were used in the Empire to describe Bosnians in an ethnic or "tribal" sense. However, the concept of nationhood was foreign to the Ottomans at that time - not to mention the idea that Muslims and Christians of some military province could foster any common sur-confessional sense of identity.[1] The inhabitants of Bosnia called themselves various names: from Bosniak, in the full spectrum of the word's meaning with a foundation as a territorial designation, through a series of regional and confessional names, all the way to modern-day national ones.

[edit] Rebirth of a national name and consciousness among Bosniaks

Due to its relatively recent wide-spread adoption as a national name, it can sometimes be difficult to define what exactly it means to be a Bosniak. The generally accepted definition (and the one used in this article) holds that Bosniaks are the Slavic Muslims on the territory of the former Yugoslavia who identify themselves as part of such a common nation. However, individuals may hold their own personal interpretations as well. For instance, some, such as prominent Bosniak intellectuals Muhamed Filipović and Adil Zulfikarpašić, hold the view that all Bosnians are Bosniaks regardless of religion.[2] Some others, such as Montenegrin Avdil Kurpeović, recognize an Islamic component in the Bosniak identity but see it as referring exclusively to Slavic Muslims in Bosnia.[2] Still others consider all Slavic Muslims in the former Yugoslavia (i.e. including the Gorani) to be Bosniaks.[3]

The effects of this phenomenon can best be seen in the censuses of countries with significant Bosniak populations. For instance, the 2003 Montenegrin census recorded 48,184 people who registered as Bosniaks and 28,714 who registered as Muslim by nationality. Although Montenegro's Slavic Muslims form one ethnic community with a shared culture and history, this community is divided on whether to register as Bosniaks (i.e. adopt Bosniak national identity) or as Muslims by nationality.[2] Similarly, the 2002 Slovenian census recorded 8,062 people who registered as Bosnians, presumably highlighting (in large part) the decision of many secular Bosniaks to primarily identify themselves in that way (a situation somewhat comparable to the Yugoslav option during the socialist period). That said, it is important to note that such people represent a minority (even in countries such as Montenegro where it is a significant issue), and that the great majority of Slavic Muslims in the former Yugoslavia have adopted the Bosniak national name.

[edit] History

Main article: History of Bosniaks

The earliest (genetic) roots of the Bosniak people can be traced back to the ancient populations that expanded into the Balkans following the Last Glacial Maximum 21 thousand years ago.[4] Indeed, recent studies have indicated that the dominant Y-chromosome haplogroup found in Bosnian Bosniaks is I - and specifically its sub-haplogroup I-P37 - which are associated with these paleolithic settlers.[4] In the 13th century BCE,[5] the old European cultures that developed from them were overrun and assimilated by the Illyrians, the earliest inhabitants of the region of whom we have any historical detail.[6] They would remain the dominant group in the west Balkans until the Roman conquest of the area in 9 CE, which led to the arrival of Latin-speaking settlers and the Romanization of the native population.

The earliest cultural and linguistic roots of Bosniak history, however, can be traced back to the Migration Period of the Early Middle Ages. It was then that the Slavs, a people from northeastern Europe, invaded the Eastern Roman Empire with their Avar overlords and settled in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and the surrounding lands. The Serbs and Croats came in a second wave, invited by Emperor Heraclius to drive the Avars from Dalmatia. As a distinct political entity, Bosnia presumably originated sometime during the Dark Ages with the collapse of the traditional tribal social structure and advent of feudalism.[6]

The name of the country was probably derived from Illyrian language and established by ancient Illyrian tribes who inhabited the lands surrounding Bosnia's central river - Illyrian: Bosona (Bosnian: Bosna); a testament to the significant influence of the assimilated Illyrian element and heritage on the region.[7]

[edit] Culture

[edit] Folklore

The tomb of Gazi Husrev-beg.
The tomb of Gazi Husrev-beg.

Bosniak folklore has a long tradition dating back to the 15th century. Like many other elements of Bosniak culture, their folklore is a mix of Slavic and Oriental influences, typically taking place prior to the 19th century.

Two popular characters seen often in Bosniak folklore are the trickster and the Hero. Probably the most famous example of the first is that of Nasrudin Hodža, where local folklore has him taking part in various episodes in a Bosnian setting. Other tricksters include an old wise man in the legend behind the old Sarajevo Orthodox church. Supposedly, a local official demanded that the church be built on land no bigger than an animal hide. The wise man then cut the hide into thin strips and laying them end to end was able to demarcate enough land to build a reasonably sized church.

National heroes are typically historical figures, whose life and skill in battle are emphasised. These include figures such as Gazi Husrev-beg, the second Ottoman governor of Bosnia who conquered many territories in Dalmatia, Northern Bosnia, and Croatia, and Gerz Eljaz Đerzelez Alija, an almost mythic character who even the Ottoman Sultan was said to have called "A Hero".

Old Slavic influences can also be seen. Ban Kulin has acquired legendary status. "Even today," wrote the historian William Miller in 1921 "the people regard him as a favorite of the fairies, and his reign as a golden age." Characters such as fairies, Vila, are also present. Pre-Slavic influences are far less common but nonetheless present. Certain elements of Illyrian, and Celtic belief have been found.

Generally, folklore also varies from region to region and city to city. Cities like Sarajevo and Mostar have a rich tradition all by themselves. Many manmade structures such as bridges and fountains, as well as natural sites, play a significant role as well.

[edit] Language

Bosniak poet, political activist and writer Mak Dizdar
Bosniak poet, political activist and writer Mak Dizdar

Bosniaks speak the Bosnian language. This language only has minor differences to the Serbian language or Croatian language in writing and grammar, but its speakers are, on the level of colloquial idiom, more linguistically homogenous than either Serbs or Croats. The Bosnian language has a number of orientalisms as well as germanisms not often used in the neighboring languages.

Bosniaks have also had two of their own unique scripts. The first was the Begovica (also called Bosančica), a descendant of local Cyrillic script that remained in use among the region's nobility. The second was the Arabica, a version of the Arabic alphabet modified for Bosnian that was in use among nearly all literate Bosniaks until the 20th century (compare with Morisco Aljamiado). Both alphabets have almost died out, as the number of people literate in them today is undoubtedly minuscule.

[edit] Religion

Most Bosniaks are Muslim, but some number of them are Atheist, Agnostic and Deist. This is due to a Secular humanism world view which was prevalent during the times of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Today, in Bosnia-Herzegovina most Bosniaks belong to the Sunni branch of Islam, although historically Sufism has also played a significant role in the country.

[edit] Surnames and names

Bosniak surnames, as is typical among the South Slavs, often end with "ić" or "ović". This is a patronymic which basically translates to "son of" in English and plays the same role as "son" in English surnames such as Johnson or Wilson. What comes prior to this can often tell a lot about the history of a certain family.

Most Bosniak surnames follow a familiar pattern dating from the period of time that surnames in Bosnia and Herzegovina were standardized. Some Bosniak Muslim names have the name of the founder of the family first, followed by an oriental profession or title, and ending with ić. Examples of this include Izetbegović (Son of Izet bey), and Hadžiosmanović ("son of Osman Hajji"). Other variations of this pattern can include surnames that only mention the name, such as Osmanović ("son of Osman"), and surnames that only mention profession, such as Imamović ("son of the Imam").

Some Bosniak names have nothing oriental about them, but end in ić. These names have probably stayed the same since medieval times, and typically come from old Bosnian nobility, or come from the last wave of converts to Islam. Examples of such names include Tvrtković and Kulenović.

Yet some Bosniaks have surnames that do not end in ić at all. These surnames are typically derived from place of origin, occupations, or various others such factors in the family's history. Examples of such surnames include Zlatar ("goldsmith"), Fočo or Tuco.

Many Bosniak national names are of foreign origin, indicating that the founder of the family came from a place outside of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Many such Bosniak surnames have Hungarian, Vlach or Turkish origins. Examples of such surnames include Vlasić and Arapović.

Many Bosniak surnames are also common as Croatian and Serbian surnames which are likely to have been the names these families had before conversion to Islam examples include: Puškar, Sučić, Subašić, Begić, Hadžić

First names among Bosniaks have mostly Arabic, Turkish, or Persian roots, similar to the way that many English names have Hebrew, Latin, and Greek origins despite it being a Germanic language. South Slavic names such as "Zlatan" are also popular primarily among non-religious Bosniaks. What is notable however is that due to the structure of the Bosnian language, many of the oriental names have been altered to create uniquely Bosniak names. Some of the Arabic names have been shortened.

The most famous example of this is that of the stereotypical Bosniak characters Mujo and Suljo, whose names are actually Bosniak short forms of Mustafa and Suleyman. More popular still is the transformation of names that in Arabic or Turkish are confined to one gender to apply to the other sex. In Bosnian, simply taking away the letter "a" changes the traditionally feminine "Jasmina" into the popular male name "Jasmin". Similarly, adding an "a" to the typically male "Mahir" results in the feminine "Mahira".

[edit] Symbols

Old flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the flag of medieval Bosnia, a national symbol for Bosniaks
Old flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the flag of medieval Bosnia, a national symbol for Bosniaks
Bosnian medieval queen Katarina Kosača-Kotromanić with the Bosnian fleur-de-lys on her royal crown, as can be see on the traditional Bosnian flag above
Bosnian medieval queen Katarina Kosača-Kotromanić with the Bosnian fleur-de-lys on her royal crown, as can be see on the traditional Bosnian flag above

Bosniaks have a wide number of historical symbols that are associated with them. Traditional Bosniak colors are green, white, yellow, and blue. The two best known Bosniak national symbols are the crescent moon and the Lillium Bosniacum.

The earliest Bosniak symbol from medieval times and the old flag of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the flag of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina are very popular symbols among Bosniaks. They were founded by king Tvrtko Kotromanić. It was supposed to represent the entire country of Bosnia and Herzegovina but the flag was not accepted by the Serb and Croat leadership in Bosnia and Herzegovina which led to that flag being traditionally Bosniak.

The earliest Bosniak flags date from the Ottoman era, and are typically a white crescent moon and star on a green background. The flag was also the symbol of the short lived independent Bosnia in the 19th century and of the resistance against the Turks led by Husein Gradaščević. The flag of the Bosniak Islamic Union is same as the flag just mentioned and is also a traditional flag of Bosniaks.

Some Bosniak organizations combine the two, adopting symbols with a crescent moon where a Lillium Bosniacum (a fleur-de-lis) replaces the traditional star. Other variations of combining the two exist. A notable one is the seal of the Bosniaks in Sandžak, which is based on the old Bosnian flag but changes one half of the seal so that instead of yellow lillies on a blue background there are yellow crescent moons on a green background.

[edit] Traditions and customs

The nation takes pride in the melancholic folk songs sevdalinka, the precious medieval filigree manufactured by old Sarajevo craftsmen, and a wide array of traditional wisdoms that are carried down to newer generations by word of mouth, and in recent years written down in numerous books. Another prevalent tradition is "Mustuluk", whereby a gift is owed to any bringer of good news.

[edit] Important dates in Bosniak history

[edit] People

[edit] Bosniaks today

Today, a national consciousness is found in the vast majority of Bosniaks in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the country, Bosniaks make up a large majority in the Bosna river valley and western Bosnian Krajina, with significant populations found in Herzegovina. Currently, they are estimated to make up 52-55% of the total population. With no official census however, its impossible to know for sure.

National consciousness has also spread to most Bosniaks in the neighboring countries. The largest number of Bosniaks outside of Bosnia and Herzegovina are found in Serbia and Montenegro (specifically in the Sandžak region). The city of Novi Pazar is home to the largest Bosniak population outside of Bosnia.

Another 40,000 Bosniaks are found in Croatia and 38,000 in Slovenia. However, some of them still identify themselves as "Muslims" or "Bosnians", according to latest estimates. In Macedonia there are estimated to be about 17,000 Bosniaks.

Due to warfare and ethnic cleansing during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a large part of the world's 2.6+ million (est.) Bosniaks are found in countries outside of the Balkans. The highest Bosniak populations outside of the ex-Yugoslavian states are found in the United States, Sweden, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Australia, Canada, and Turkey. Prior generations of Bosniak immigrants to some of these countries have by now been mostly integrated.

Regarding the Western countries most of the Bosniaks are war refugees that only arrived in these countries during the past 15 years or so. They still speak Bosnian, and maintain a cultural and religious community and visit their mother country regularly.

The United States is home to about 130,000 (est.) Bosniaks, the cities with the highest Bosniak populations are St. Louis and Chicago. The following major American cities, ordered randomly, have notable Bosniak communities: Atlanta, Charlotte, Houston, Jacksonville, Phoenix, Portland, Oregon, San Jose, Salt Lake City, Utah, Tampa, Florida and New York City.

In the United States there are also significant Bosniak communities in the following places, in no specific order: Lawrenceville, Georgia, Utica, New York, Hamtramck, Michigan, Bowling Green, Kentucky, Erie, Pennsylvania, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Hartford, Louisville, Lynnwood, Washington, Northbrook, Illinois, Fort Wayne, Indiana, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, Clearwater, Florida, and Manchester, New Hampshire. These places do not have as many Bosniaks as those mentioned before but the Bosniaks in these cities make up a considerably larger percentage of the total population.

In Canada, the Bosniak communities of Toronto, Vancouver and Hamilton are notable.

The highest number of Bosniak immigrants and people descending of Bosniaks are found in Turkey. Today, it is generally accepted that approximately 350,000 Turks descend directly from Bosniaks who immigrated to Turkey mostly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[citation needed]

Documents recently found by Turkish historians, however, indicate that Turks having direct and indirect Bosniak ancestry, number as high as 1.5 million.[citation needed]

It is believed that many aspects of Bosniak identity were lost among these people due to Turkish assimilation laws in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Bosniak immigrants to Turkey were required to change their names to Turkish or Turkish sounding ones(under the Law on Family names). As a consequence of this, today some Turks do have somewhat Slavic sounding surnames. However some also have entirely Slavic surnames, the most common one probably being "Kiliç" spelled in Turkish as compared to the Bosnian version which is spelled "Kilić".

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b Bošnjaci from the Croatian-language Wikipedia. Retrieved June 19, 2006.
  2. ^ a b c Dimitrovova, Bohdana. "Bosniak or Muslim? Dilemma of one Nation with two Names." Southeast European Politics, Vol. II, No. 2. October, 2001.
  3. ^ Bajrami, Kerim. "Reagovanje na članak: Uz 90 godina od slavne Bitke za Čanakkale." Naš
  4. ^ a b Marjanović, Damir; et al. "The peopling of modern Bosnia-Herzegovina: Y-chromosome haplogroups in the three main ethnic groups." Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Sarajevo. November, 2005.
  5. ^ Gjonaj, Pashko. The Ancient Illyrians. 2001.
  6. ^ a b Malcolm, Noel (1994). Bosnia A Short History. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-5520-8.
  7. ^ Imamović, Mustafa (1996). Historija Bošnjaka. Sarajevo: BZK Preporod. ISBN 9958-815-00-1

[edit] External links