100% use of renewable energy is almost a dream of the Paris Climate Conference 30 years later. However, two countries have achieved 100% use of renewable energy, one of which relies on photovoltaic power for 90%, and the other has no photovoltaic concept at all but is extremely eager for photovoltaic.
1.90% Depends on Photovoltaic Power-Tokelau
How did this country become the world's first country to use all renewable energy?
Tokelau, also known as the "Union Islands" or "United Islands", has only three coral islands. It is the smallest island in the world, with a population of less than 1500. It is managed by New Zealand, but it is the first 100% renewable Energy-powered countries, more than 90% of renewable energy is solar panels, and the rest of the electricity comes from locally produced coconut oil.
Of course, such a small country cannot really be called a "country". It has not yet been completely independent, and the area is too small. It only depends on New Zealand's annual assistance. All photovoltaic power generation facilities are built by New Zealand, because this country is too "Lazy", and its photovoltaic capacity can not cause everyone's interest.
2.100% relies on hydropower to generate electricity but urgently needs photovoltaic power – Bhutan
According to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Bhutan, located between China and India, has 1.67 gw of hydroelectric power capacity that has fully met its electricity demand, which only accounts for 5% of Bhutan ’s hydropower development potential. .
The rain caused by the summer monsoon has far exceeded the national electricity demand of Bhutan, so 75% of Bhutan's hydroelectric power generation capacity was sold to India. Rich, winding rivers, and hydropower plants built using the country's currents have “lit” almost every Bhutanese family.
However, Bhutan's over-reliance on hydropower depends on the river and the summer monsoon. And the drought intensified by the climate crisis has affected Bhutan's river system, so Bhutan's power supply is unstable throughout the year. Studies show that Bhutan's power supply is incomplete. In 2017, 58% of households surveyed experienced one or more blackouts for at least an hour in a week.
Bhutan faces varying degrees of power shortages in winter and spring. Although the world's per capita water resources ranked first, Bhutan once experienced a domestic shortage of about 1,300 MW, and the power supply was only 770 MW. The negative impact caused by insufficient power supply runs counter to the development goal of the Bhutanese government to seek to become a zero-carbon net economy.
According to IRENA estimates, Bhutan has approximately 9 MW of non-hydro renewable energy generation, while decentralized off-grid solar power and small solar power grid installations are less than 1 MW.
It is estimated that despite the mountainous terrain of Bhutan, Bhutan is considered to have a high level of solar radiation, with daily solar radiation of 4 to 5.5 kWh / m2, its photovoltaic potential up to 12GW, and wind energy up to 760MW. Just because hydropower is abundant, Bhutan has formulated a renewable energy policy. By 2025, the installed capacity of non-hydro renewable energy will be 20 MW, of which solar power will only be 5 MW.
As the cost of photovoltaic power generation has fallen faster than global expectations, the Bhutanese government is already considering reformulating its renewable energy policy and plans to invest more in photovoltaic and wind energy in order to achieve complementary power generation capabilities of wind, light and water. Improve its power supply structure to meet the needs of domestic power consumption growth, and more securely protect power demand. It is expected that the domestic photovoltaic demand in Bhutan will have 3GW.
In addition, Bhutan's renewable energy-related investment policy states:
Developers, manufacturers and system integrators involved in renewable energy projects are exempt from corporate income tax for 10 years from the date of operation;
During the construction period of government-restricted projects, all import duties and sales taxes on imported equipment are exempted;
Sales tax and tariff exemption for all renewable energy project purchases;
Developers, manufacturers and system integrators of renewable energy projects in poor and remote areas enjoy another five years of income tax deductions;
The "Bhutan Trade Classification and Tariff Table (Sixth Edition) 2017" expressly stipulates that photovoltaic modules, including photovoltaic cells, packaged or bulk, are exempt from import duties.